Center for Biological Diversity

Endangered Bird Trends

Hawaii        

ESA Population Trend Determined:

 

‘Akiapōlā‘au

'AKIAPŌLĀ‘AU (Hemignathus munroi)

Akiapolaau
Akiapolaau population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 27%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The ‘akiapōlā‘au has been reduced to a few isolated subpopulations on the island of Hawaii by logging, grazing and development. These subpopulations continue to be threatened by disease and competition with, and predation by, invasive species. In 1903, the species was still common, but by 1967 when it was listed as endangered, it was rare. Post-listing the population grew from 1,496 birds in 5 subpopulations in 1977 to about 1,900 birds in 2 subpopulations in 2009.

‘Ō‘u

‘Ō‘Ū (Psittirostra psittacea)

'O'u'
'O'u population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The ‘o‘u declined due to deforestation, livestock grazing, feral ungulates, and invasive species and disease. It was extirpated from four of six islands by the 1930s. There were very few sightings of the bird after the species was listed in 1967. It was last seen on the island of Hawaii in 1987 and on Kauai in 1989. It may well be extinct.

Crested honeycreeper, or ‘ākohekohe

CRESTED HONEYCREEPER, OR 'AKOEKOHE (Palmeria dole)

Crested honeycreeper, or ‘akohekohe
Crested honeycreeper, Palmeria dole, population graph

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: 1.25%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The crested honeycreeper, or ‘ākohekohe, is threatened by avian disease connected to climate change; competition with and predation by nonnative species, and habitat loss and degradation caused by development and feral ungulates. Between 1980 and 2014, the ‘ākohekohe population generally remained stable at around 3,800 birds. A 1999 estimate of 6,745 was likely high due to extrapolation; however, a significant increase in core-range density was observed in that year.

Hawaii ‘ākepa, or akakane

HAWAII 'ĀKEPA, OR AKAKANE (Dendroica chrysoparia)

Hawaii ‘akepa, or akakane
Hawaii ‘akepa, or akakane population graph

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: -14%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Hawaii ‘ākepa, or akakane, declined due to the destruction and fragmentation of its forest habitat by logging and livestock grazing, and the spread of invasive, disease-carrying mosquitoes whose elevational range has increased with global warming. The subspecies population was estimated at 13,892 in 1978 and remained roughly stable at this level through 2007. In 2008, the estimate was of 12,000. While one major subpopulation grew during that time, others declined.

Hawaii creeper

HAWAII CREEPER (Oreomystis mana)

Hawaii creeper, Oreomystis mana
Population graph for Hawaii creeper, Oreomystis mana

Status since listing: 12%

Growth since listing: Stable

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1975

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Hawaii creeper declined dramatically due to development; grazing; and invasive predators, plants, competitors and diseases. The movement of avian malaria into higher elevations may be the most significant threat in coming decades. Once an abundant species, it had been reduced to about 12,500 birds by 1980 (shortly after it was listed as endangered in 1975). Since then, the creeper population has remained relatively stable, with 14,000 birds estimated in 2008.

Hawaiian common gallinule, or ‘alae‘ula

HAWAIIAN COMMON GALLINULE, OR 'ALAE'ULA (Gallinula galeata sandvicensis)

Hawaiian common gallinule, or ‘alae‘ula
Hawaiian common gallinule, or ‘alae‘ula population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 2,692%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2011

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian common gallinule declined due to the destruction and degradation of its wetland habitat. Though absolute abundance numbers aren't clear, its population growth rate was sharply positive from 1956 through the mid-1980s, then increased more slowly through 2007. An index of the population increased from 13 in 1967 to 363 in 2007.

Hawaiian coot, or ‘alae ke‘oke‘o

HAWAIIAN COOT, OR 'ALAE KE'OKE'O (Fulica alai)

Hawaiian coot, Fulica alai
Hawaiian coot, Fulica alai, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 748%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2011

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian coot was initially threatened by hunting (in the first half of the 20th century), but it more recently it has been threatened primarily by habitat loss. The rangewide winter coot count increased from 208 birds in 1970 to 1,763 in 2007. Although winter counts fluctuate greatly from year to year, on the whole an upward trend is still detectable.

Hawaiian crow, or ‘alalā

HAWAIIAN CROW, OR 'ALALĀ (Psittirostra psittacea)

Hawaiian crow, or ‘alala
Hawaiian crow, or ‘alala, Psittirostra psittacea, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian crow, or ‘alalā, is the only surviving member of Hawaii's five endemic crow species. It was extirpated from the wild by habitat destruction, predation by introduced predators, disease, and genetic impoverishment. Listed in 1967, it declined from 100 birds in 1968 to 12 in 1992. After a failed augmentation effort, all wild birds were captured in 2003. Captive birds increased from eight to 114 between 1978 and 2016. Reintroductions are planned for September 2016.

Hawaiian duck, or koloa

HAWAIIAN DUCK, OR KOLOA (Anas wyvilliana)

Hawaiian duck, or koloa
Hawaiian duck, or koloa, Anas wyvilliana, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -32%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2011

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian duck, or koloa, has been endangered by hunting, nonnative predators, hybridization with domestic ducks, and habitat loss. Estimates on Kauai since the year before the species' listing in 1967 had declined from 2,942 individuals to 2,000 in 2002. As of 2015, the population was still thought to be around or less than 2,000, although this was not based on new surveys.

Hawaiian goose, or nēnē

HAWAIIAN GOOSE, OR NĒNĒ (Branta sandvicensis)

Hawaiian goose, or nene
Hawaiian goose, or nene, Branta sandvicensis, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 566%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2004

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian goose, or nēnē, is endemic to the Hawaiian islands, where it declined from a historic population estimate of 20,000 birds to just 30 by 1918 due to overhunting, habitat loss and introduced predators. It numbered about 450 in 1972, five years after the species was listed as endangered (in 1967). As of 2015 about 3,000 birds were estimated to exist.

Hawaiian hawk, or 'io

HAWAIIAN HAWK, OR 'IO (Buteo solitarius)

Hawaiian hawk, or 'io
Hawaiian hawk, or 'io, Buteo solitarius, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 54%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Delisted: Proposed 2014

Recovery plan: 1984

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian hawk declined due to logging and conversion of forests to farmlands and livestock pastures. Hunting and invasive predators and disease may have also harmed it. When the species was listed as endangered in 1967, about 100 Hawaiian hawks were thought to remain, though this and 1970s numbers are likely underestimates. In 1985 the estimated population was 1,950 hawks; in 2009 that number was 3,000.

Hawaiian petrel, or 'ua'u

HAWAIIAN PETREL, OR 'UA'U (Pterodroma sandwichensis)

Hawaiian petrel, or 'ua'u
Hawaiian petrel, Pterodroma sandwichensis, population graph

Status since listing: 0%

Growth since listing: Stable

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1983

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian petrel, or 'ua'u, declined due to habitat loss, hunting, predation by invasive species, disease-carried by invasive mosquitoes, disorientation due to light pollution, and collisions with structures. Very rare by 1900, this bird was thought extinct from 1928 to 1948. Since its endangered listing in 1967, its population has grown on protected lands on Maui, Lanai and Kauai. Population estimates were about 4,500 breeding pairs in 1987, 2005 and 2013.

Hawaiian stilt, or ae'o

HAWAIIAN STILT, OR AE'O (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni)

Hawaiian stilt, or ae'o
Hawaiian stilt, or ae'o, Himantopus mexicanus knudseni, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 298%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2011

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian stilt is threatened primarily by habitat loss and predation. It was formerly threatened by hunting. Its population had declined to just 200 birds by 1941, but 529 stilts were counted in 1970, when it was listed, and though its numbers vary widely, overall it had increased by winter 2007, when 2,103 birds were counted.

Kauai ‘o‘o

KAUAI 'O'O (Moho braccatus)

Kauai ‘o‘o
Kauai ‘o‘o, Moho braccatus, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Kauai ‘ōʻō declined due to habitat destruction and degradation and likely avian disease. As its range and population withered and lost resiliency, hurricanes may have delivered the final blow. It was listed as endangered in 1967. In 1973, the population estimate stood at 36. The bird was last heard in 1987, and concerted efforts to detect the species thereafter have failed. The species is most likely extinct.

Large Kauai thrush, or kāma‘o

LARGE KAUAI THRUSH, OR KĀMA'O (Myadestes myadestinus)

Large Kauai thrush, or kama‘o
Large Kauai thrush, or kama‘o, Myadestes myadestinus, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The large Kauai thrush, or kāma‘o, was affected by habitat destruction and degradation via development, grazing and introduced species, among other factors. Avian disease seems to have played a particularly large role in the species' decline. In the 1880s it was the most common bird on Kauai. In 1970 it was listed as endangered, and in 1973, only 337 birds were estimated to exist, with the last confirmed sighting in 1987. The species is very likely extinct.

Laysan duck

LAYSAN DUCK (Anas laysanensis)

Laysan duck
Laysan duck population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 20%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2009

SUMMARY
The Laysan duck had disappeared from most of the Hawaiian Islands in the 19th century due to introduced predators, habitat loss and windblown sand. More recently it has been threatened by disease, tsunamis, storms, drought and small population size. The species was listed as endangered in 1967 and, in 1979, the population was estimated to be 489 birds, all on Laysan Island. In 2012, 620 were estimated with 339 on Laysan Island and 281 in a population that had been established on Midway Atoll in 2004.  

Laysan finch

LAYSAN FINCH (Telespiza cantans)

Laysan finch
Laysan finch population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 16%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1984

SUMMARY
The Laysan finch declined precipitously following the introduction of rabbits that denuded Laysan Island of vegetation. The species increased following rabbit removal, but remains threatened by invasive species and sea-level rise. In 1923 as few as 100 of the finches existed. The Laysan island population was estimated at around 7,798 birds in 1967 and 9,077 in 2012. While the population fluctuates widely, overall it was stable near carrying capacity between 1966 and 2012.

Maui ‘ākepa, or akepeuie

MAUI 'ĀKEPA, OR AKEPEUIE (Loxops coccineus ochraceus)

Maui ‘akepa, or akepeuie
population graph for Maui ‘akepa, Loxops coccineus ochraceus

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Maui ‘ākepa, or akepeuie, declined to possible extinction due to habitat loss and degradation, invasive predators, and the spread of disease. If it still exists, it is likely severely genetically impoverished. After being listed as endangered in 1970, the Maui ‘ākepa was seldom seen. In 1980 its population was estimated to number 230 birds with 8 sightings having occurred that year. The last confirmed detection was in 1988.

‘Ō‘u

‘Ō‘Ū (Psittirostra psittacea)

'O'u'
'O'u population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The ‘o‘u declined due to deforestation, livestock grazing, feral ungulates, and invasive species and disease. It was extirpated from four of six islands by the 1930s. There were very few sightings of the bird after the species was listed in 1967. It was last seen on the island of Hawaii in 1987 and on Kauai in 1989. It may well be extinct.

Maui parrotbill, or kiwikiu

MAUI PARROTBILL, OR KIWIKIU (Pseudonestor xanthophrys)

Maui parrotbill, or kiwikiu
population graph for Maui parrotbill, or kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: 0%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Maui parrotbill, or kiwikiu, has been threatened, in general, by habitat loss and degradation, predation and invasive diseases. The Maui parrotbill was thought extinct, then was rediscovered in 1950. Between 1980 and 2015, the estimated population went from 502 to 500. The species' total population is thought to have been stable during that time.

Molokai thrush, or oloma‘o

MOLOKAI THRUSH, OR OLOMA'O (Myadestes lanaiensis rutha)

Molokai thrush, or oloma‘o, Myadestes lanaiensis rutha
population graph for Molokai thrush, or oloma‘o

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Molokai thrush, or oloma‘o, declined to possible extinction due to habitat destruction by agriculture, development, grazing, and likely also mosquito-borne diseases exacerbated by climate change, invasive species and genetic diversity loss. Ubiquitous on Molokai in the early 1900s, the bird was seen only four times since 1963 and three times since being listed as endangered in 1970. No more than three have been seen in any year since 1963. The last confirmed sighting was in 1980.

Newell's shearwater, or 'a'o

NEWELL'S SHEARWATER, ‘A‘O (Puffinus auricularis newelli)

Newell's shearwater, or 'a'o
population graph for Newell's shearwater, or 'a'o, Puffinus auricularis newelli

Status since listing: Decreased

Growth since listing: -67%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1975

Uplisted: Determination 2011

Recovery plan: 1983

SUMMARY
The Newell's shearwater, or 'a'o, declined due to predation by invasive rats, mongooses, cats and barn owls, collisions with power lines, habitat loss, and disorientation and grounding caused by its attraction to artificial lighting. It was listed in 1975. The bulk of its population occurs on Kauai, where 63,000 were estimated in surveys between 1980 and 1994. Due in part to Hurricane Iniki in 1992, by 2008 the Kaui population had declined to 21,000.

Nihoa finch

NIHOA FINCH (Telespiza ultima)

Nihoa finch
Nihoa finch, Telespiza ultima, population graph

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: -5%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1984

SUMMARY
The Nihoa finch is especially vulnerable due to its small population size and small, isolated range. Specific threats include natural disasters, the potential for nonnative species introductions, demographic stochasticity and climate change. At the time of its listing in 1967, 4,689 individuals were estimated to exist. Overall their population has remained fairly stable since then, with the 2012 estimate at 4,475 finches.

Nihoa millerbird

NIHOA MILLERBIRD (Acrocephalus familiaris kingi)

Nihoa millerbird
Nihoa millerbird, Acrocephalus familiaris kingi, population graph

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: -15%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1984

SUMMARY
The Nihoa millerbird inhabits two small islands in the northwestern Hawaiian archipelago. Its main threat comes from the small size of its habitat, which leaves it particularly susceptible to invasive species, disease and storm events. Between 1967 and 2012, its rangewide population declined from 625 to 533. Its numbers fluctuate widely, making the population trend best described as stable. The 2011 establishment of a second population lends security to the species’ survival.

Oahu ‘elepaio

OAHU 'ELEPAIO (Chasiempis sandwichensis ibidis)

Oahu ‘elepaio
Oahu ‘elepaio population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -36%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 2000

Recovery plan: 2006

Critical habitat: 2001

SUMMARY
The Oahu ‘elepaio is threatened by nest predation from introduced rats and by avian disease. Population declines since the 1940s have been dramatic and are continuing. Upon listing as an endangered species in 2000, the population was estimated at 1,974 birds. By 2012 that number had fallen to 1,261.

Oahu creeper, or Oahu ‘alauahio

OAHU CREEPER, OR OAHU 'ALAUAHIO (Paroreomyza maculata)

Oahu creeper, Paroreomyza maculata, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Oahu creeper, or Oahu ‘alauahio, declined due to the destruction of a large portion of the forests on the island of Oahu. That which remains has been compromised as habitat by invasive species and diseases. The creeper was still considered plentiful in the late 1800s. By the 1930s it was rare. The species was listed as endangered in 1970 and only seen in one year after: 3 birds in 1978.

Palila

PALILA (Loxioides bailleui)

Palila
Palila population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 28%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

Critical habitat: 1977

SUMMARY
The palila historically declined due to, and is still threatened by disease, predation by invasive cats and rats, grazing by invasive sheep and pigs, fire, drought, invasive insects and plants, and climate change. Its population grew from 1,614 birds in 1975, to a peak of 6,067 in 2003, then declined to just 2,070 in 2014. While the overall 1975-2014 trend is positive, steep declines in the past decade will reverse this soon if not halted.

Po'ouli

PO‘OULI (Melamprosops phaeosoma)

po‘ouli
po‘ouli, Melamprosops phaeosoma, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1975

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The po‘ouli’s range had been greatly reduced by the time it was discovered in 1973. While its threats aren't well known, they have likely been similar to those faced by other Hawaiian forest birds, including feral pig damage and mosquito-borne disease. The po‘ouli was listed in 1975. After that time, no more than six birds were known in any given year. In 2004 the last wild sighting occurred and the last known individual died in captivity.

Short-tailed albatross

SHORT-TAILED ALBATROSS (Phoebastria albatrus)

Short-tailed albatross
Short-tailed albatross population graph

Growth since listing: Increased

Status since listing: 1278%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2008

SUMMARY
The short-tailed albatross was decimated by commercial collection during the 1940s. More recent threats include volcanic activity, landslides, typhoons, climate change, longline fishing and oceanic plastic pollution. The seabird was rediscovered in 1950s, with 10 breeding pairs. The species was listed in 1970 and estimated at 64 pairs in 1973 and 882 in 2011. The first chick hatched outside of Japan was on Midway Atoll in 2011, where breeding has since continued.

Small Kauai thrush, or puaiohi

SMALL KAUAI THRUSH, OR PUAIOHI (Myadestes palmeri)

Small Kauai thrush, or puaiohi
population graph for small Kauai thrush, or puaiohi

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 184%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The small Kauai thrush, or puaiohi, is threatened by habitat loss and modification, avian disease, invasive plants, and competition and predation by introduced animals. In 1971, the species estimated to number 176 birds. In 1999, 2006 and 2010, the population was estimated to be 250, 400 and 500 birds. While some of this increase is due to improved survey methods, the species is known to have increased.

Extinct or Extirpated Prior to ESA Listing:

 

Kauai ‘akialoa

KAUAI 'AKIALOA (Hemignathus procerus)

Kauai ‘akialoa

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Kauai ‘akialoa was not well known, but it presumably faced the same threats as many other Hawaiian forest birds, including mosquito-borne diseases, habitat loss and degradation, and predation by introduced species. It was last seen in 1965, two years before it was listed as an endangered species.

Kauai nukupu‘u

KAUAI NUKUPU'U (Hemignathus lucidus hanapepe)

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Kauai nukupu‘u rapidly declined rapidly to possible extinction in the nineteenth century due to habitat loss, disease and invasive species. There have been reported sightings in only nine years between 1900 and 2010, and in six years since its Endangered Species Act listing in 1967. Post-1967 reports all reported three or fewer birds in any year. The last confirmed sighting was in 1899.

Maui nukupu‘u

MAUI NUKUPU'U (Hemignathus lucidus affinis)

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Maui nukupu‘u was driven extinct by habitat destruction, invasive species, and disease. Its last confirmed sighting was in 1901. It was listed as an endangered species in 1970 in the hopes that it would be rediscovered. A handful of unconfirmed sightings have been reported since then, but none confirmed.

Molokai creeper, or kākāwahie

MOLOKAI CREEPER, OR KĀKĀWAHIE (Paroreomyza flammea)

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Molokai creeper disappeared before it could be studied. Its extinction was likely caused by disease, habitat loss and degradation, and the effects of invasive species. Two to three birds were seen each year in 1961, 1962 and 1963 but, as of 2015, the species had not been sighted since 1963 despite repeated, targeted surveys. It was listed as endangered in 1970, seven years after its last observation.

Listed Under the ESA Less Than 10 Years:

 

Kauai ‘ākepa

KAUAI 'AKEPA, OR 'AKEKE'E (Loxops caeruleirostris)

Kauai ‘akepa population graph

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 2010

Recovery plan: 2010

Critical habitat: 2010

SUMMARY
The Kauai ‘ākepa, or ‘akeke‘e, is primarily threatened by introduced mosquito-borne diseases and habitat loss. Predation by rats is also a potential threat. At its endangered listing in 2010, the most recent reliable estimate had been of 3,111 individuals in 2008. In 2007 the estimate stood at 3,536 birds, but by 2012 only 945 remained.

Kauai creeper, or ‘akikiki

KAIAUI CREEPER, OR 'AKIKIKI (Oreomystis bairdi)

Kauai creeper population graph

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 2010

Recovery plan: 2010

Critical habitat: 2010

SUMMARY
The Kauai creeper, or ‘akikiki, is primarily threatened by introduced mosquito-borne diseases, habitat loss and degradation, and, potentially, predation by introduced species. The ‘akikiki is estimated to have declined from 1,312 individuals in 2007 to 468 in 2012. It was listed as endangered in 2010.