Center for Biological Diversity

Endangered Bird Trends

Florida  

ESA Population Trend Determined:

 

American peregrine falcon

AMERICAN PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregrinus anatum)

American peregrine falcon
American peregrine falcon population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 4,131%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1970

Downlisted: Final 1984

Delisted: Final 1999

Recovery plan: 1991

Critical habitat: 1977

SUMMARY
The American peregrine falcon was threatened by the use of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides, which caused eggshell thinning that led to reproductive failure and population declines. The banning of DDT, captive breeding efforts, and nest protections allowed the falcon to increase from 39 breeding pairs in the lower 48 U.S. states in 1975 to 1,650 pairs as of 1999, the year in which the species was delisted.

Audubon’s crested caracara, Florida DPS

AUDUBON'S CRESTED CARACARA, FLORIDA DPS (Caracara cheriway audubonii)

Audubonís crested caracara, Florida DPS
population graph for Audubonís crested caracara, Florida DPS, Caracara cheriway audubonii

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: 11%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1987

Recovery plan: 1999

SUMMARY
Audubon’s crested caracara declined due to the conversion of its habitat to areas slated for urban development and agricultural production, especially of citrus and sugarcane. Its population declined by a large but unquantified amount in the 1900s, leading to its listing as threatened in 1987. It was stable between 1991, when the population was between 400 and 500 birds, and 2009, when more than 500 were estimated.

Bald eagle, continental U.S. DPS

BALD EAGLE, CONTINENTAL U.S. DPS (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

Bald eagle, continental U.S. DPS
population graph for bald eagle, continental U.S. DPS, Haliaeetus leucocephalus

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 1,896%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1967

Downlisted: Final 1995

Delisted: Final 2007

Recovery plan: 1999

SUMMARY
The bald eagle declined throughout the lower 48 states, and was extirpated from most of them, due to habitat loss, persecution and DDT-related eggshell thinning. The banning of DDT; increased wetland protection and restoration; and an aggressive, mostly state-based reintroduction program caused eagle pairs to soar from 417 in 1963 to 11,040 in 2007, when the bird was removed from the endangered species list.

Brown pelican

BROWN PELICAN, ATLANTIC DPS (Pelecanus occidentalis)

brown pelican population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 268%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1970

Delisted: Final 1985

Recovery plan: 1980

SUMMARY
The Atlantic population of the brown pelican ranges from the eastern Gulf of Mexico along the Atlantic Coast to New England. The population was driven to near-extinction by DDT-caused eggshell thinning, habitat loss and breeding-ground disturbance. On the Atlantic Coast, the pelican had increased from 2,796 pairs in 1970, when it was listed as endangered, to 10,300 in 1985, when it was delisted. On the eastern Gulf Coast, it increased from 5,100 pairs in 1970 to 5,682 in 1999.

Cape Sable seaside sparrow

CAPE SABLE SEASIDE SPARROW (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis)

Cape Sable seaside sparrow
Cape Sable seaside sparrow, Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -52%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1999

Critical habitat: 1977

SUMMARY
The Cape Sable seaside sparrow's habitat has been dramatically degraded by agriculture-driven disruption of natural flooding regimes in the Florida Everglades, where woody and nonnative species are encroaching upon its grasslands habitat. Its population was devastated by a 1935 hurricane, stayed small until 1955, and grew to 6,656 birds in 1981. It was stable through 1992 but crashed to 3,312 in 1993. Since 1998 it has hovered at around 3,000, estimated at about 3,200 birds in 2015.

Dusky seaside sparrow

DUSKY SEASIDE SPARROW (Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens)

Dusky seaside sparrow
population graph, dusky seaside sparrow, Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens

Status since listing: Decreased

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1967

Delisted: Final 1990

Recovery plan: 1978

Critical habitat: 1977

SUMMARY
The dusky seaside sparrow was driven extinct by DDT spraying, destruction of its habitat for mosquito control, and conversion of its habitat to cattle pastures and suburban and industrial development. The species was reduced from about 5,000 to 1,500 pairs between 1942 and 1953 by DDT spraying. Habitat destruction reduced it to about 927 pairs in 1968 and 161 in 1970. It was extirpated from the wild by 1980 and extinct altogether by 1987.

EVERGLADE SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus)

population graph for Everglade snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 75%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1999

Critical habitat: 1977

SUMMARY
The Everglade snail kite is threatened by freshwater marsh destruction, periodic dewatering by water diversions, low population numbers, rangewide drought and hurricanes. The kite was listed in 1967. Based on extrapolation of estimates and growth rates, the species' 1969 population was estimated at 971 birds. It grew to 3,577 in 1999, fell to 662 in 2009, then grew relatively steadily to 1,700 in 2014.

Florida grasshopper sparrow

FLORIDA GRASSHOPPER SPARROW (Ammodramus savannarum floridanus)

Florida grasshopper sparrow
Florida grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum floridanus, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -60%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1986

Recovery plan: 1999

SUMMARY
The Florida grasshopper sparrow declined due to the conversion of 80-85% of its historical grassland habitat to roads, housing developments, farms and livestock pastures. Most remaining grasslands have been degraded by fire suppression. The known population increased from 140 to 340 singing males between 1986, when it was listed as an endangered species, and 2001. It then declined precipitously to 90 in 2001, and 57 in 2015. In 2014 it was predicted to go extinct in 3 to 5 years.

Florida scrub jay

FLORIDA SCRUB JAY (Aphelocoma coerulescens)

Florida scrub jay
Florida scrub jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -49%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1987

Recovery plan: 1999

SUMMARY
The Florida scrub-jay declined due to habitat destruction, degradation and fragmentation by agricultural conversion, development and disruption of natural fire regimes. Fire suppression caused increased shrub/tree encroachment and canopy closure. The bird's population declined from an estimated 27,000 breeding pairs in pre-settlement times to 13,800 by the late 1880s, then to about 6,000 when it was listed as endangered in 1987. It continued to decline to 4,000 in 1993 and 3,000 in 2010.

Piping plover, Atlantic DPS

PIPING PLOVER, ATLANTIC DPS (Charadrius melodus)

Atlantic piping plover
Atlantic piping plover, Charadrius melodus, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 212%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1985

Recovery plan: 2003

Critical habitat: 2001

SUMMARY
The Atlantic piping plover initially declined due to hunting and the millinery trade. With these eliminated it increased in the first half of the 20th century, but began declining after 1950 due to development, beach crowding and predation. It was listed as threatened in 1985. Intensive habitat protection and predator control grew its U.S. population from 550 pairs in 1986 to 1,679 in 2015. The 1,600 pair recovery goal was met in 2007 and 2012 through 2015 (although 2014 data is lacking).

Piping plover, Great Lakes DPS

PIPING PLOVER, GREAT LAKES DPS (Charadrius melodus)

Great Lakes piping plover
Great Lakes piping plover population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 295%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1985

Recovery plan: 2003

Critical habitat: 2001

SUMMARY
The Great Lakes piping plover initially declined due to hunting, egg collecting and the millinery trade. More recent declines are the result of development, predation and human recreation in plover nesting habitat. When the plover was listed as endangered in 1985, only 19 pairs remained in the Great Lakes region. The species continued to decline to 12 pairs in 1990 before increasing steadily to 75 pairs in 2015.

Piping plover, northern Great Plains DPS

PIPING PLOVER, NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS DPS (Charadrius melodus)

Northern Great Plains piping plover
Northern Great Plains piping plover,Charadrius melodus, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 180%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1985

Recovery plan: 2016

Critical habitat: 2002

SUMMARY
The Northern Great Plains piping plover was listed as endangered in 1985 due to threats from habitat loss, predation and disturbance. The plover's numbers in the Northern Great Plains region increased from about 525 breeding pairs in 1986 (the year after it was listed) to 1,468 breeding pairs in 2008.

Red-cockaded woodpecker

RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER (Picoides borealis)

Red-cockaded woodpecker
red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 110%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2003

SUMMARY
The red-cockaded woodpecker population declined precipitously due to the significant rangewide loss of mature, longleaf pine forest, largely due to logging and alteration of the local fire regime. Its populations have stabilized, and many have increased, since the late 1990s. In 1970 there were 3,000 active clusters in the designated recovery populations. Numbers had increased to 6,303 by 2014.

Roseate tern, Caribbean DPS

ROSEATE TERN, CARIBBEAN DPS (Sterna dougallii dougallii)

Roseate tern, Caribbean DPS
population graph for Roseate tern, Caribbean DPS, Sterna dougallii dougallii

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: 30%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1989

Recovery plan: 1999

SUMMARY
The Caribbean distinct population segment of the roseate tern declined due to predation by invasive species, collection by humans, nest-site disturbance, habitat lost to development, disruption of vegetation succession processes, and storm-driven erosion. Since listing, Florida and Culebra nests have declined from 300 to 100 each. Southwestern Puerto Rico nests grew from 474 to 934. Virgin Islands nests fluctuated but were stable overall at about 1,200. Rangewide, nests were relatively stable at around 2,000.

Whooping crane

WHOOPING CRANE (Grus americana)

Whooping crane
Whooping crane population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 923%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2007

Critical habitat:1978

SUMMARY
The whooping crane declined precipitously in the late 1800s and early 1900s due to hunting and habitat loss. It remains threatened by habitat degradation, collisions with power lines, and oil and gas development. When listed as endangered in 1967, the whooping crane consisted of 43 wild and 7 captive birds. Thanks to extensive conservation efforts, the species had grown to 440 wild and 161 captive birds by 2014.

Wood stork, U.S. DPS

WOOD STORK, U.S. DPS (Mycteria americana)

Wood stork, U.S. DPS
population graph for wood stork, U.S. DPS

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 61%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1984

Downlisted: Final 2014

Recovery plan: 1999

SUMMARY
The U.S. distinct population segment of the wood stork declined due to loss of wetland breeding habitat caused by the creation and management of levees, canals and floodgates. The number of wood stork nests was estimated at 6,245 in 1984 when the species was listed as endangered. In 2014 the species was reclassified as threatened. Approximately 10,058 nests existed in 2015.

Extinct or Extirpated Prior to ESA Listing:

 

Bachman’s warbler

BACHMAN'S WARBLER (Vermivora bachmanii)

Bachmanís warbler

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

SUMMARY
Bachman’s warbler was described by James Audubon in 1833. It was driven extinct by intensive logging of its breeding habitat in the United States beginning in the early 1900s. It was considered common until about 1910, when intensive logging began, and it was rare by the 1930s. Its last confirmed sighting was in 1962 in the I'on Swamp. There was an unconfirmed sighting of the bird in its Cuban wintering grounds in 1984.

Listed Under the ESA Less Than 10 Years:

 

Rufa red knot

RUFA RED KNOT (Calidris canutus rufa)

rufa red knot

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 2014

SUMMARY
The rufa red knot is threatened by climate change, shoreline development, and interferences with prey availability. Data on the bird are sparse and incomplete. While the subspecies’ precise numbers through time are uncertain, decreases in the late 1900s and 2000s were apparent. The knot was listed as threatened in 2014.