Center for Biological Diversity

Endangered Bird Trends

N Through Z      

 

ESA Population Trend Determined:

 

Newell's shearwater, or 'a'o

NEWELL'S SHEARWATER, ‘A‘O (Puffinus auricularis newelli)

Newell's shearwater, or 'a'o
population graph for Newell's shearwater, or 'a'o, Puffinus auricularis newelli

Status since listing: Decreased

Growth since listing: -67%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1975

Uplisted: Determination 2011

Recovery plan: 1983

SUMMARY
The Newell's shearwater, or 'a'o, declined due to predation by invasive rats, mongooses, cats and barn owls, collisions with power lines, habitat loss, and disorientation and grounding caused by its attraction to artificial lighting. It was listed in 1975. The bulk of its population occurs on Kauai, where 63,000 were estimated in surveys between 1980 and 1994. Due in part to Hurricane Iniki in 1992, by 2008 the Kaui population had declined to 21,000.

Nihoa finch

NIHOA FINCH (Telespiza ultima)

Nihoa finch
Nihoa finch, Telespiza ultima, population graph

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: -5%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1984

SUMMARY
The Nihoa finch is especially vulnerable due to its small population size and small, isolated range. Specific threats include natural disasters, the potential for nonnative species introductions, demographic stochasticity and climate change. At the time of its listing in 1967, 4,689 individuals were estimated to exist. Overall their population has remained fairly stable since then, with the 2012 estimate at 4,475 finches.

Nihoa millerbird

NIHOA MILLERBIRD (Acrocephalus familiaris kingi)

Nihoa millerbird
Nihoa millerbird, Acrocephalus familiaris kingi, population graph

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: -15%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1984

SUMMARY
The Nihoa millerbird inhabits two small islands in the northwestern Hawaiian archipelago. Its main threat comes from the small size of its habitat, which leaves it particularly susceptible to invasive species, disease and storm events. Between 1967 and 2012, its rangewide population declined from 625 to 533. Its numbers fluctuate widely, making the population trend best described as stable. The 2011 establishment of a second population lends security to the species’ survival.

Northern Aplomado falcon

NORTHERN APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis septentrionalis)

Northern Aplomado falcon
Northern Aplomado falcon population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 2,700%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1986

Recovery plan: 1990

SUMMARY
The northern Aplomado falcon declined due to brush encroachment of savanna because of fire suppression and livestock grazing; agricultural conversion; stream channelization; pesticide exposure and predation by brush-loving species. It was extirpated from the United States by 1960, listed as endangered in 1986, and reintroduced to the coastal plain of South Texas in 1993. The breeding population increased from one pair in 1995 to 44 in 2005, then declined to 28 in 2012 and 2013.

Northern spotted owl

NORTHERN SPOTTED OWL (Strix occidentalis caurina)

Northern spotted owl
Northern spotted owl population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -56%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1990

Recovery plan: 2011

Critical habitat: 1992

SUMMARY
The northern spotted owl declined due to destruction and fragmentation of nesting, roosting and foraging habitat by wildfire, logging, and other natural disturbances (such as windstorms), as well as competition with encroaching barred owls. Between 1990 and 2013, 11 researched populations of northern spotted owls declined by 3.8% annually. By 2011 the total population at their sites was 37% of what it had been in 1985.

Oahu ‘elepaio

OAHU 'ELEPAIO (Chasiempis sandwichensis ibidis)

Oahu ‘elepaio
Oahu ‘elepaio population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -36%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 2000

Recovery plan: 2006

Critical habitat: 2001

SUMMARY
The Oahu ‘elepaio is threatened by nest predation from introduced rats and by avian disease. Population declines since the 1940s have been dramatic and are continuing. Upon listing as an endangered species in 2000, the population was estimated at 1,974 birds. By 2012 that number had fallen to 1,261.

Oahu creeper, or Oahu ‘alauahio

OAHU CREEPER, OR OAHU 'ALAUAHIO (Paroreomyza maculata)

Oahu creeper, Paroreomyza maculata, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Oahu creeper, or Oahu ‘alauahio, declined due to the destruction of a large portion of the forests on the island of Oahu. That which remains has been compromised as habitat by invasive species and diseases. The creeper was still considered plentiful in the late 1800s. By the 1930s it was rare. The species was listed as endangered in 1970 and only seen in one year after: 3 birds in 1978.

‘Ō‘u

‘Ō‘Ū (Psittirostra psittacea)

'O'u'
'O'u population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The ‘o‘u declined due to deforestation, livestock grazing, feral ungulates, and invasive species and disease. It was extirpated from four of six islands by the 1930s. There were very few sightings of the bird after the species was listed in 1967. It was last seen on the island of Hawaii in 1987 and on Kauai in 1989. It may well be extinct.

Pagan nightingale reed-warbler

PAGAN NIGHTINGALE REED WARBLER, OR GAGA KARISU (Acrocephalus luscinia yamashinae)

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Pagan nightingale reed-warbler, or gaga karisu, was threatened mainly by the clearing and subsequent grazing of much of its habitat. As of the 1960s, the bird has not been seen despite multiple survey efforts made in hopes of detecting the subspecies.

Palau fantail

PALAU FANTAIL (Rhipidura lepida)

Palau fantail
Palau fantail population graph

Status since listing: Unknown

Growth since listing: Unknown

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1970

Delisted: Final 1985

SUMMARY
The Palau fantail was driven to near extinction by World War II military operations which destroyed or degraded most of its habitat. It was listed as an endangered species in 1970, rebounded and was delisted in 1985. Its trend-since-listing is unknown as there are no population estimates in that time period.  In 1991, it was estimated at 27,154 birds, in 2015 was abundant or common on most of Palau's islands, and in 2016 was considered to be increasing.

Palau ground dove

PALAU GROUND DOVE (Gallicolumba canifrons)

Palau ground dove population graph

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: 0%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1970

Delisted: Final 1985

SUMMARY
The Palau ground dove was nearly driven extinct by habitat-destroying military operations during World War II. It is currently at risk from the potential introduction of invasive predators, including rats and brown tree snakes. Its population was unquantified but very small in 1945. It was listed as endangered in 1970 and remained stable at about 500 birds between 1978 and 1985, when it was delisted due to recovery. A 2012 population estimate of at least 600 is uncertain.

Palau owl

PALAU OWL (Pyroglaux podargina)

Palau owl population graph

Status since listing: Unknown

Growth since listing: Unknown

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1970

Delisted: Final 1985

SUMMARY
The Palau owl is endemic to the islands of Palau. It was nearly eliminated by forest destruction during World War II and the introduction of invasive rhinoceros beetles, supposedly capable of eviscerating the owl from the inside upon being swallowed. The species was at very low numbers in 1945 and into the late 1960s. It was listed in 1970 and had increased to 12,000 individuals by 1978 due to forest recovery and beetle control. The owl was delisted in 1985.

Palila

PALILA (Loxioides bailleui)

Palila
Palila population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 28%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

Critical habitat: 1977

SUMMARY
The palila historically declined due to, and is still threatened by disease, predation by invasive cats and rats, grazing by invasive sheep and pigs, fire, drought, invasive insects and plants, and climate change. Its population grew from 1,614 birds in 1975, to a peak of 6,067 in 2003, then declined to just 2,070 in 2014. While the overall 1975-2014 trend is positive, steep declines in the past decade will reverse this soon if not halted.

Piping plover, Atlantic DPS

PIPING PLOVER, ATLANTIC DPS (Charadrius melodus)

Atlantic piping plover
Atlantic piping plover, Charadrius melodus, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 212%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1985

Recovery plan: 2003

Critical habitat: 2001

SUMMARY
The Atlantic piping plover initially declined due to hunting and the millinery trade. With these eliminated it increased in the first half of the 20th century, but began declining after 1950 due to development, beach crowding and predation. It was listed as threatened in 1985. Intensive habitat protection and predator control grew its U.S. population from 550 pairs in 1986 to 1,679 in 2015. The 1,600 pair recovery goal was met in 2007 and 2012 through 2015 (although 2014 data is lacking).

Piping plover, Great Lakes DPS

PIPING PLOVER, GREAT LAKES DPS (Charadrius melodus)

Great Lakes piping plover
Great Lakes piping plover population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 295%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1985

Recovery plan: 2003

Critical habitat: 2001

SUMMARY
The Great Lakes piping plover initially declined due to hunting, egg collecting and the millinery trade. More recent declines are the result of development, predation and human recreation in plover nesting habitat. When the plover was listed as endangered in 1985, only 19 pairs remained in the Great Lakes region. The species continued to decline to 12 pairs in 1990 before increasing steadily to 75 pairs in 2015.

Piping plover, northern Great Plains DPS

PIPING PLOVER, NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS DPS (Charadrius melodus)

Northern Great Plains piping plover
Northern Great Plains piping plover,Charadrius melodus, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 180%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1985

Recovery plan: 2016

Critical habitat: 2002

SUMMARY
The Northern Great Plains piping plover was listed as endangered in 1985 due to threats from habitat loss, predation and disturbance. The plover's numbers in the Northern Great Plains region increased from about 525 breeding pairs in 1986 (the year after it was listed) to 1,468 breeding pairs in 2008.

Po'ouli

PO‘OULI (Melamprosops phaeosoma)

po‘ouli
po‘ouli, Melamprosops phaeosoma, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1975

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The po‘ouli’s range had been greatly reduced by the time it was discovered in 1973. While its threats aren't well known, they have likely been similar to those faced by other Hawaiian forest birds, including feral pig damage and mosquito-borne disease. The po‘ouli was listed in 1975. After that time, no more than six birds were known in any given year. In 2004 the last wild sighting occurred and the last known individual died in captivity.

Puerto Rican broad-winged hawk, or guaraguao de bosque

PUERTO RICAN BROAD-WINGED HAWK, OR GUARAGUAO DE BOSQUE (Buteo platypterus brunnescens)

Puerto Rican broad-winged hawk, or guaraguao de bosque
population graph for Puerto Rican broad-winged hawk, Buteo platypterus brunnescens

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: 1%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1994

Recovery plan: 1997

SUMMARY
The Puerto Rican broad-winged hawk declined due to habitat loss and degradation, human disturbance, competition with red-tailed hawks, and genetic problems due to its very small population size. It was listed as an endangered species in 1994 with an estimated 124 birds inhabiting three forests. The population has remained stable since then, with an estimated 125 hawks present in 2010.

Puerto Rican nightjar

PUERTO RICAN NIGHTJAR (Caprimulgus noctitherus)

Puerto Rican nightjar
Puerto Rican nightjar, Caprimulgus noctitherus, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 20%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1973

Recovery plan: 1984

SUMMARY
The Puerto Rican nightjar declined due to habitat loss from agricultural, residential and industrial development, livestock grazing, wildfire, and predation by invasive mongooses and feral cats. A main population's density was 0.11 birds per hectare (483 birds) in 1971 and 0.14 (615) in 1992. While a 2008 estimate was incomparable, it was much higher, and by that time the species' known range had increased and forest conditions had improved.

Puerto Rican parrot

PUERTO RICAN PARROT (Amazona vittata)

Puerto Rican parrot
Puerto Rican parrot population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 354%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2009

SUMMARY
The Puerto Rican parrot declined to near-extinction due to deforestation, hunting and hurricane damage. When it was listed as an endangered species in 1967, there were just 24 birds in the wild. Due to habitat protection, captive breeding and predator control, by 2014 the species had increased to 109 in the wild and 409 in captivity.

Puerto Rican plain pigeon

PUERTO RICAN PLAIN PIGEON (Columba inornata wetmorei)

Puerto Rican plain pigeon
population graph for Puerto Rican plain pigeon, Columba inornata wetmorei

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 363%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 1982

SUMMARY
The Puerto Rican plain pigeon declined to near-extinction due to hunting and the clearing of forests for agriculture and development. It remains highly threatened by habitat loss for development, hurricane damage to forests, and low bird density. Overall its total population has fluctuated, but it increased from a few hundred survivors observed at the time of the species' listing in 1970 and an estimated 2,055 birds in existence in 1986 to an estimated population of 9,509 birds in 2010.

Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawk

PUERTO RICAN SHARP-SHINNED HAWK (Accipiter striatus venator)

Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawk
Population graph for Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter striatus venator

Status since listing: Decreased

Growth since listing: -68%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1994

Recovery plan: 1997

SUMMARY
The Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawk has been threatened primarily by habitat degradation and loss. It is also affected by warble-fly parasitism, road construction, human disturbance, and its low numbers and limited range. This subspecies was listed as endangered in 1994. It declined from an estimated 150 in 1992 to 49 in 2015. In 2015 it was called a "ghost bird," and people feared it would be extirpated from its former stronghold, Maricao Forest.

Puerto Rico yellow-shouldered blackbird, or la mariquita de Puerto Rico

PUERTO RICAN YELLOW-SHOULDERED BLACKBIRD, OR LA MARQUITA DEL PUERTO RICO (Agelaius xanthomus xanthomus)

Puerto Rico yellow-shouldered blackbird, or la mariquita de Puerto Rico
population graph for Puerto Rico yellow-shouldered blackbird, or la mariquita de Puerto Rico

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 176%

ESA status: Endangered

List year:1976

Recovery plan: 1996

Critical habitat: 1977

SUMMARY
The Puerto Rico yellow-shouldered blackbird declined dramatically due to cowbird parasitism, predation by introduced species such as black rats, and habitat loss due to development. The bird was listed as endangered in 1976 and the post-breeding roost count of its population on the island of its name was of 272 birds in 1982. The population grew to 750 post-breeding birds counted in 2012.

Red-cockaded woodpecker

RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER (Picoides borealis)

Red-cockaded woodpecker
red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 110%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2003

SUMMARY
The red-cockaded woodpecker population declined precipitously due to the significant rangewide loss of mature, longleaf pine forest, largely due to logging and alteration of the local fire regime. Its populations have stabilized, and many have increased, since the late 1990s. In 1970 there were 3,000 active clusters in the designated recovery populations. Numbers had increased to 6,303 by 2014.

Roseate tern, Caribbean DPS

ROSEATE TERN, CARIBBEAN DPS (Sterna dougallii dougallii)

Roseate tern, Caribbean DPS
population graph for Roseate tern, Caribbean DPS, Sterna dougallii dougallii

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: 30%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1989

Recovery plan: 1999

SUMMARY
The Caribbean distinct population segment of the roseate tern declined due to predation by invasive species, collection by humans, nest-site disturbance, habitat lost to development, disruption of vegetation succession processes, and storm-driven erosion. Since listing, Florida and Culebra nests have declined from 300 to 100 each. Southwestern Puerto Rico nests grew from 474 to 934. Virgin Islands nests fluctuated but were stable overall at about 1,200. Rangewide, nests were relatively stable at around 2,000.

Roseate tern, northeastern DPS

ROSEATE TERN, NORTHEASTERN DPS (Sterna dougallii dougallii)

Roseate tern, northeastern DPS
population graph for Roseate tern, northeastern DPS

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 30%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1987

Recovery plan: 1998

SUMMARY
The Northeast population of the roseate tern initially declined due to the millinery trade, then later by loss of habitat to coastal development. The tern is now threatened by development, erosion, climate change, predation and potentially wind turbines. Since being listed in 1987, the U.S. population of nesting roseate terns has fluctuated but increased overall. There were 2,995 pairs in 1988, the population peaked at 4,310 pairs in 2000, then fell through 2008, but had increased to 3,901 by 2015.

Rota bridled white-eye

ROTA BRIDLED WHITE-EYE (Zosterops rotensis)

Rota bridled white-eye
Rota bridled white-eye population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 88%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 2004

Recovery plan: 2007

Critical habitat: 2006

SUMMARY
The Rota bridled white-eye is endemic to the island of Rota, where it has declined significantly in range extent and population size due to predation from introduced species and other factors not yet known. Formerly common, the bird declined to a population of 14,963 in 1982 and a low of 2,015 in 1995. It was listed as endangered in 2004 and its population increased from 6,591 in 2003 to 9,730 in 2006, then to 14,384 in 2012.

Rufa red knot

RUFA RED KNOT (Calidris canutus rufa)

rufa red knot

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 2014

SUMMARY
The rufa red knot is threatened by climate change, shoreline development, and interferences with prey availability. Data on the bird are sparse and incomplete. While the subspecies’ precise numbers through time are uncertain, decreases in the late 1900s and 2000s were apparent. The knot was listed as threatened in 2014.

San Clemente Bell’s sparrow

SAN CLEMENTE BELL'S SPARROW (Artemisiospiza belli clementae)

San Clemente Bell's sparrow
San Clemente Bell's sparrow population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 1,645%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1977

Recovery plan: 1984

SUMMARY
The San Clemente Bell’s sparrow declined due to overgrazing by introduced sheep, cattle and pigs. It recovered greatly following their removal but remains threatened by disturbance, predation, fire and climate change. Its population grew from 93 birds in 1976 (the year before it was listed as an endangered species) to 1,623 in 2012. New survey methods and increased survey areas resulted in estimates of 4,533, 6,386 and 4,381 birds in 2013, 2014 and 2015 respectively.

San Clemente loggerhead shrike

SAN CLEMENTE LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE (Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi)

San Clemente loggerhead shrike
San Clemente loggerhead shrike population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 224%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1977

Recovery plan: 1984

SUMMARY
The San Clemente loggerhead shrike's habitat was severely degraded by sheep, pigs, deer and goats beginning in the late 1880s. Nonnative grazers have been eliminated, but nonnative predators remain a threat. The bird was listed as endangered in 1977. About 50 shrikes remained in 1975, and only 14 were left in 1998. A captive-breeding and reintroduction program was initiated in 1999, causing the population to steadily increase to a minimum of 185 breeding birds in 2009. In 2013 there were at least 136.

Santa Barbara song sparrow

SANTA BARBARA SONG SPARROW (Melospiza melodia graminea)

Santa Barbara song sparrow

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1973

Delisted: Final 1983

SUMMARY
The Santa Barbara song sparrow was driven to extinction by ranching, farming, the effects of non-native species, and a catastrophic fire that followed after the practice of fire suppression. Despite significant threats, the sparrow's population remained reasonably healthy until a fire wiped the bird out in 1959, consuming most of its habitat. The sparrow was delisted in 1983.

Short-tailed albatross

SHORT-TAILED ALBATROSS (Phoebastria albatrus)

Short-tailed albatross
Short-tailed albatross population graph

Growth since listing: Increased

Status since listing: 1278%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2008

SUMMARY
The short-tailed albatross was decimated by commercial collection during the 1940s. More recent threats include volcanic activity, landslides, typhoons, climate change, longline fishing and oceanic plastic pollution. The seabird was rediscovered in 1950s, with 10 breeding pairs. The species was listed in 1970 and estimated at 64 pairs in 1973 and 882 in 2011. The first chick hatched outside of Japan was on Midway Atoll in 2011, where breeding has since continued.

Small Kauai thrush, or puaiohi

SMALL KAUAI THRUSH, OR PUAIOHI (Myadestes palmeri)

Small Kauai thrush, or puaiohi
population graph for small Kauai thrush, or puaiohi

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 184%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The small Kauai thrush, or puaiohi, is threatened by habitat loss and modification, avian disease, invasive plants, and competition and predation by introduced animals. In 1971, the species estimated to number 176 birds. In 1999, 2006 and 2010, the population was estimated to be 250, 400 and 500 birds. While some of this increase is due to improved survey methods, the species is known to have increased.

Southwestern willow flycatcher

SOUTHWESTERN WILLOW FLYCATCHER (Empidonax traillii extimus)

Southwestern willow flycatcher
Southwestern willow flycatcher population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 137%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1995

Recovery plan: 2002

Critical habitat: 1997

SUMMARY
The southwestern willow flycatcher declined due to habitat modification and destruction such as stream channel modification, floods, drought and climate change, and parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds. Due to habitat restoration and acquisition, cattle and cowbird reduction and improved reservoir management, known territories increased from 549 to 986 to 1,299 in 1996, 2001 and 2007. The largest increases were in the Gila and Rio Grande river basins.

Spectacled eider

SPECTACLED EIDER (Somateria fischeri)

Spectacled eider
Spectacled eider population graph

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: 7%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1993

Recovery plan: 2006

Critical habitat: 2001

SUMMARY
The spectacled eider is threatened by ingestion of lead shot and environmental contaminants, oil and gas development, increased predation and possibly hunting. A combined index of the U.S. population indicates that Alaska's two primary populations were relatively stable between the species' 1993 listing (12,082) and 2012 (12,964).

Steller’s eider, Alaska breeding DPS

STELLER'S EIDER, ALASKA BREEDING DPS (Polysticta stelleri)

Steller’s eider, Alaska breeding DPS
population graph for Steller’s eider, Alaska breeding DPS, Polysticta stelleri

Status since listing: 63%

Growth since listing: Stable

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1997

Recovery plan: 2002

Critical habitat: 2001

SUMMARY
The Steller’s eider's two Alaska breeding populations declined for reasons that are not entirely known, but potential threats include increased predation, poaching, poisoning by ingested lead shot, and changes in ocean conditions and climate. Breeding bird index counts fluctuated greatly between 1997, when the eider was listed under the Endangered Species Act, and 2012. While the 2012 index (358) is much larger than the 1997 (220), the overall population trend is stable.

Streaked horned lark

STREAKED HORNED LARK (Eremophila alpestris strigata)

streaked horned lark

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 2013

Critical habitat: 2013

SUMMARY
The streaked horned lark has been threatened primarily by a drastic contraction in its range. Furthermore, remaining habitat is often ephemeral and prone to human disturbance. Data on its population trends is lacking, but significant rangewide decreases occurred in the late 1900s and 2000s. The only available population estimate is of 1,390 in 2011. The subspecies was listed as threatened in 2013.

Thick-billed parrot

THICK-BILLED PARROT (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha)

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2013

SUMMARY
The thick-billed parrot was driven to very low population levels in the U.S. by hunting and logging in the 1800s and 1900s. In Mexico, the species is threatened by deforestation, grazing’s effect on forest fire regimes, and the illegal bird trade. Historical accounts of the thick-billed parrot’s abundance do not exist, but natural occurrences of the bird in the United States were last recorded in 1938 and possibly 1964. In 2012, about 2,000 parrots, all in Mexico, were thought to exist.

Tinian monarch, or Chickurikan Tinian

TINIAN MONARCH, CHICKURIKAN TINIAN (Monarcha takatsukasae)

Tinian monarch, or Chickurikan Tinian
population graph for Tinian monarch, or Chickurikan Tinian, Monarcha takatsukasae

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: 10%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1970

Downlisted: Final 1987

Delisted: Final 2004

SUMMARY
The population of the Tinian monarch, or Chickurikan Tinian, reached critically low levels due to the removal of native forests for sugarcane production prior to World War II and military activities during the war. The species continues to face numerous threats. After its listing in 1970, numbers reached 95,916 in 1982 and 105,352 in 1996. The monarch was delisted in 2004. During listing its population remained stable. In 2013, population estimates stood at 90,634.

Western snowy plover, Pacific DPS

WESTERN SNOWY PLOVER, PACIFIC DPS (Charadrius nivosus nivosus)

Western snowy plover, Pacific DPS
population graph for Western snowy plover, Pacific DPS

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 96%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1993

Recovery plan: 2007

Critical habitat: 1999

SUMMARY
The snowy plover declined on the Pacific Coast due to habitat loss, disturbance of nest sites, and encroachment of European beach grass. It remains threatened by predation, disturbance and climate change. When listed as endangered in 1993, its U.S. population was estimated at fewer than 1,500 adults. Protection efforts caused the population to increase to 2,938 estimated adults in 2015.

White-necked crow

WHITE-NECKED CROW (Corvus leucognaphalus)

white-necked crow

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1991

SUMMARY
The white-necked crow was extirpated from Puerto Rico by deforestation and hunting. As of 2015, the bird remained on Hispaniola where it faced the same threats. While the last sighting of the crow on Puerto Rico occurred in 1963, the species was listed as endangered in the United States in 1991.

Whooping crane

WHOOPING CRANE (Grus americana)

Whooping crane
Whooping crane population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 923%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2007

Critical habitat:1978

SUMMARY
The whooping crane declined precipitously in the late 1800s and early 1900s due to hunting and habitat loss. It remains threatened by habitat degradation, collisions with power lines, and oil and gas development. When listed as endangered in 1967, the whooping crane consisted of 43 wild and 7 captive birds. Thanks to extensive conservation efforts, the species had grown to 440 wild and 161 captive birds by 2014.

Wood stork, U.S. DPS

WOOD STORK, U.S. DPS (Mycteria americana)

Wood stork, U.S. DPS
population graph for wood stork, U.S. DPS

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 61%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1984

Downlisted: Final 2014

Recovery plan: 1999

SUMMARY
The U.S. distinct population segment of the wood stork declined due to loss of wetland breeding habitat caused by the creation and management of levees, canals and floodgates. The number of wood stork nests was estimated at 6,245 in 1984 when the species was listed as endangered. In 2014 the species was reclassified as threatened. Approximately 10,058 nests existed in 2015.

YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO, WESTERN DPS (Coccyzus americanus)

Yellow-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus, population graph

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 2014

SUMMARY
The yellow-billed cuckoo is threatened primarily by the destruction and degradation of its native riparian woodland habitat due to invasive species, grazing and water management practices. Its range contracted dramatically during the 1900s. As of 2013, there were estimated to be 423 breeding pairs (1,705 individuals) remaining in the United States. The bird was listed as threatened in 2014.

Yuma clapper rail, U.S. DPS

YUMA CLAPPER RAIL, U.S. DPS (Rallus longirostris yumanensis)

Yuma clapper rail, U.S. DPS
population graph for Yuma clapper rail, U.S. DPS

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: 18%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2010

SUMMARY
The Yuma clapper rail is the only clapper rail to inhabit freshwater. Its wetland habitat on the Lower Colorado River in Arizona and Mexico is threatened by pollution, urbanization, damming, diversion and desiccation. Listed as endangered in the United States in 1967, the rail's U.S. population was estimated at 698 birds in 1973. Despite fluctuations, its population has since been stable overall. In 2008, the U.S. population estimate was 641.

 

Extinct or Extirpated Prior to ESA Listing:

 

Palau fantail

PALAU FANTAIL (Rhipidura lepida)

Palau fantail
Palau fantail population graph

Status since listing: Unknown

Growth since listing: Unknown

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1970

Delisted: Final 1985

SUMMARY
The Palau fantail was driven to near extinction by World War II military operations which destroyed or degraded most of its habitat. It was listed as an endangered species in 1970, rebounded and was delisted in 1985. Its trend-since-listing is unknown as there are no population estimates in that time period.  In 1991, it was estimated at 27,154 birds, in 2015 was abundant or common on most of Palau's islands, and in 2016 was considered to be increasing.

Oahu creeper, or Oahu ‘alauahio

OAHU CREEPER, OR OAHU 'ALAUAHIO (Paroreomyza maculata)

Oahu creeper, Paroreomyza maculata, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Oahu creeper, or Oahu ‘alauahio, declined due to the destruction of a large portion of the forests on the island of Oahu. That which remains has been compromised as habitat by invasive species and diseases. The creeper was still considered plentiful in the late 1800s. By the 1930s it was rare. The species was listed as endangered in 1970 and only seen in one year after: 3 birds in 1978.

Pagan nightingale reed-warbler

PAGAN NIGHTINGALE REED WARBLER, OR GAGA KARISU (Acrocephalus luscinia yamashinae)

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Pagan nightingale reed-warbler, or gaga karisu, was threatened mainly by the clearing and subsequent grazing of much of its habitat. As of the 1960s, the bird has not been seen despite multiple survey efforts made in hopes of detecting the subspecies.

Santa Barbara song sparrow

SANTA BARBARA SONG SPARROW (Melospiza melodia graminea)

Santa Barbara song sparrow

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1973

Delisted: Final 1983

SUMMARY
The Santa Barbara song sparrow was driven to extinction by ranching, farming, the effects of non-native species, and a catastrophic fire that followed after the practice of fire suppression. Despite significant threats, the sparrow's population remained reasonably healthy until a fire wiped the bird out in 1959, consuming most of its habitat. The sparrow was delisted in 1983.

Thick-billed parrot

THICK-BILLED PARROT (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha)

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2013

SUMMARY
The thick-billed parrot was driven to very low population levels in the U.S. by hunting and logging in the 1800s and 1900s. In Mexico, the species is threatened by deforestation, grazing’s effect on forest fire regimes, and the illegal bird trade. Historical accounts of the thick-billed parrot’s abundance do not exist, but natural occurrences of the bird in the United States were last recorded in 1938 and possibly 1964. In 2012, about 2,000 parrots, all in Mexico, were thought to exist.

White-necked crow

WHITE-NECKED CROW (Corvus leucognaphalus)

white-necked crow

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1991

SUMMARY
The white-necked crow was extirpated from Puerto Rico by deforestation and hunting. As of 2015, the bird remained on Hispaniola where it faced the same threats. While the last sighting of the crow on Puerto Rico occurred in 1963, the species was listed as endangered in the United States in 1991.

 

Listed Under the ESA Less Than 10 Years:


Rufa red knot

RUFA RED KNOT (Calidris canutus rufa)

rufa red knot

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 2014

SUMMARY
The rufa red knot is threatened by climate change, shoreline development, and interferences with prey availability. Data on the bird are sparse and incomplete. While the subspecies’ precise numbers through time are uncertain, decreases in the late 1900s and 2000s were apparent. The knot was listed as threatened in 2014.

Streaked horned lark

STREAKED HORNED LARK (Eremophila alpestris strigata)

streaked horned lark

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 2013

Critical habitat: 2013

SUMMARY
The streaked horned lark has been threatened primarily by a drastic contraction in its range. Furthermore, remaining habitat is often ephemeral and prone to human disturbance. Data on its population trends is lacking, but significant rangewide decreases occurred in the late 1900s and 2000s. The only available population estimate is of 1,390 in 2011. The subspecies was listed as threatened in 2013.

YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO, WESTERN DPS (Coccyzus americanus)

Yellow-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus, population graph

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 2014

SUMMARY
The yellow-billed cuckoo is threatened primarily by the destruction and degradation of its native riparian woodland habitat due to invasive species, grazing and water management practices. Its range contracted dramatically during the 1900s. As of 2013, there were estimated to be 423 breeding pairs (1,705 individuals) remaining in the United States. The bird was listed as threatened in 2014.