Center for Biological Diversity

Endangered Bird Trends

A Through M     

 

ESA Population Trend Determined:

 

‘Akiapōlā‘au

'AKIAPŌLĀ‘AU (Hemignathus munroi)

Akiapolaau
Akiapolaau population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 27%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The ‘akiapōlā‘au has been reduced to a few isolated subpopulations on the island of Hawaii by logging, grazing and development. These subpopulations continue to be threatened by disease and competition with, and predation by, invasive species. In 1903, the species was still common, but by 1967 when it was listed as endangered, it was rare. Post-listing the population grew from 1,496 birds in 5 subpopulations in 1977 to about 1,900 birds in 2 subpopulations in 2009.

Aguiguan nightingale reed-warbler, or gaga karisu

AGUIGUAN NIGHTINGALE REED-WARBLER, OR GAGA KARISU (Acrocephalus luscinia nijoi)

Aguiguan nightingale reed-warbler, or gaga karisu
Aguiguan nightingale reed-warbler, or gaga karisu population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 1998

SUMMARY
The Aguiguan nightingale reed-warbler, or gaga karisu, was endemic to dense native forest understories on the island of Aguiguan in the Northern Mariana Islands. Prior to 1945, much of its habitat was destroyed or degraded by farming and development. After being listed as endangered in 1970, it was only seen a few times, with the last sighting in 1995. The bird was not found during targeted surveys in the 2000s and is likely extinct.

Aleutian Canada goose

ALEUTIAN CANADA GOOSE (Branta hutchinsii leucopareia)

Aleutian Canada goose
Aleutian Canada goose, Branta hutchinsii leucopareia, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 8,184%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1967

Downlisted: Final 1990

Delisted: Final 2001

Recovery plan: 1991

SUMMARY
The Kirtland's warbler population declined due to fire suppression, nest parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds, and loss of forest habitat to development and agriculture. It was listed as endangered in 1967, and by 1971 there were only 201 surviving singing males. In response to habitat protection and restoration, as well as cowbird control, the population grew steadily to 2,365 pairs in 2015.

American peregrine falcon

AMERICAN PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregrinus anatum)

American peregrine falcon
American peregrine falcon population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 4,131%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1970

Downlisted: Final 1984

Delisted: Final 1999

Recovery plan: 1991

Critical habitat: 1977

SUMMARY
The American peregrine falcon was threatened by the use of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides, which caused eggshell thinning that led to reproductive failure and population declines. The banning of DDT, captive breeding efforts, and nest protections allowed the falcon to increase from 39 breeding pairs in the lower 48 U.S. states in 1975 to 1,650 pairs as of 1999, the year in which the species was delisted.

ARCTIC PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregrinus tundrius)

population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 619%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1970

Downlisted: Final 1984

Delisted: Final 1994

SUMMARY
The Arctic peregrine falcon population declined because of eggshell thinning due to DDT and other organochlorine pesticides. Its listing as endangered in 1970, along with the endangerment of other birds of prey, prompted the ban of DDT in 1972. Counts of migratory Arctic falcons at Cape May increased from 103 in 1976 to 741 in 1994. The species was downlisted to threatened in 1984 and delisted in 1994.

Attwater's greater prairie chicken

ATTWATER'S GREATER PRAIRIE CHICKEN (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri)

Attwater's greater prairie chicken
Attwater's greater prairie chicken, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -91%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2010

SUMMARY
The Attwater’s greater prairie chicken has primarily been threatened by loss of tall grass prairie habitat from agricultural, urban and industrial expansion. Disease, parasites and severe weather may also have contributed to its decline. Historically, an estimated 1 million birds occupied vast coastal prairies in Texas and Louisiana. The population had dropped to 1,118 by 1967 and fewer than 1,000 by 1986, plunging below 100 between 1996 and 2013. In 2016 there were 126 birds.

Audubon’s crested caracara, Florida DPS

AUDUBON'S CRESTED CARACARA, FLORIDA DPS (Caracara cheriway audubonii)

Audubon’s crested caracara, Florida DPS
population graph for Audubon’s crested caracara, Florida DPS, Caracara cheriway audubonii

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: 11%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1987

Recovery plan: 1999

SUMMARY
Audubon’s crested caracara declined due to the conversion of its habitat to areas slated for urban development and agricultural production, especially of citrus and sugarcane. Its population declined by a large but unquantified amount in the 1900s, leading to its listing as threatened in 1987. It was stable between 1991, when the population was between 400 and 500 birds, and 2009, when more than 500 were estimated.

Bald eagle, continental U.S. DPS

BALD EAGLE, CONTINENTAL U.S. DPS (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

Bald eagle, continental U.S. DPS
population graph for bald eagle, continental U.S. DPS, Haliaeetus leucocephalus

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 1,896%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1967

Downlisted: Final 1995

Delisted: Final 2007

Recovery plan: 1999

SUMMARY
The bald eagle declined throughout the lower 48 states, and was extirpated from most of them, due to habitat loss, persecution and DDT-related eggshell thinning. The banning of DDT; increased wetland protection and restoration; and an aggressive, mostly state-based reintroduction program caused eagle pairs to soar from 417 in 1963 to 11,040 in 2007, when the bird was removed from the endangered species list.

Bermuda petrel, or cahow

BERMUDA PETREL, OR CAHOW (Pterodroma cahow)

Bermuda petrel
Bermuda petrel population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 366%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2005

SUMMARY
The Bermuda petrel, or cahow, nests in Bermuda and is seen off the North Carolina coast. It was driven to near-extinction by hunting, loss of its beach nesting habitat, and predation by and competition from other birds and invasive rats. Its population increased from 24 nesting pairs when it was listed in 1970 to 112 in 2015. A new nesting colony was created by translocation, and as of 2015 all five of its colonies were fairly well protected from destruction, predation and competition.

Black-capped vireo

BLACK-CAPPED VIREO (Vireo atricapilla)

black-capped vireo, Vireo atricapilla, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 7,346%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1987

Downlisted: Determination 2007

Recovery plan: 1991

SUMMARY
The black-capped vireo is threatened by habitat loss; cowbird brood parasitism; vegetational succession; and overgrazing by domestic, native and introduced species. Threats have decreased since it was listed as an endangered species in 1987. The estimated number of territorial males in its four largest populations increased from 153 in 1987 to 11,392 in 2013. A portion of this growth is due to survey effort; regardless, the species is known to have increased substantially as a whole.

Brown pelican

BROWN PELICAN, ATLANTIC DPS (Pelecanus occidentalis)

brown pelican population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 268%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1970

Delisted: Final 1985

Recovery plan: 1980

SUMMARY
The Atlantic population of the brown pelican ranges from the eastern Gulf of Mexico along the Atlantic Coast to New England. The population was driven to near-extinction by DDT-caused eggshell thinning, habitat loss and breeding-ground disturbance. On the Atlantic Coast, the pelican had increased from 2,796 pairs in 1970, when it was listed as endangered, to 10,300 in 1985, when it was delisted. On the eastern Gulf Coast, it increased from 5,100 pairs in 1970 to 5,682 in 1999.

Brown pelican, western Gulf Coast population

BROWN PELICAN, WESTERN GULF COAST DPS (Pelecanus occidentalis)

Brown pelican, western Gulf Coast DPS population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 421225%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1970

Delisted: Final 2009

Recovery plan: 1980

SUMMARY
The western Gulf Coast brown pelican population declined to near-extinction in Louisiana, Texas and Mississippi due to unregulated hunting, habitat loss, and reproductive failure from DDT-caused eggshell thinning. It was listed as endangered in 1970. The population increased from four nests in 1970, to 21,266 in 2005, declined to 12,037 in 2006 after Hurricane Katrina, then increased to 16,853 in 2007. It was delisted in 2009. There were 16,317 nests in 2010 prior to the Deepwater Horizon catastrophe.

California brown pelican

CALIFORNIA BROWN PELICAN (Pelecanus occidentalis californicus)

California brown pelican
California brown pelican population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 1464%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1970

Delisted: Final 2009

Recovery plan: 1983

SUMMARY
The California brown pelican declined due to habitat loss, reproductive failure from DDT-related eggshell thinning, and toxic exposure to the pesticide endrin. The banning of DDT and protection of nesting areas are responsible for the species' recovery. The bird was listed as endangered in 1970 with 748 nests, but continued declining to a low of 466 in 1978. Since then, the species has increased, though inconsistently, having reached 11,695 nesting pairs when it was delisted in 2009.

California clapper rail

CALIFORNIA CLAPPER RAIL (Rallus longirostris obsoletus)

California clapper rail
California clapper rail population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -77%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2013

SUMMARY
The California clapper rail was initially threatened by hunting until the Migratory Bird Act was passed in 1913. Contemporary threats to the species, including agriculture and salt ponds, affect the bird’s salt-marsh habitat. Its total population fell from 5,100 birds in 1970 to about 500 in 1991. Since then, population numbers had climbed to an estimated 1,167 for 2009 through 2011.

California condor

CALIFORNIA CONDOR (Gymnogyps californianus)

California condor population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 391%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1996

Critical habitat: 1976

SUMMARY
The California condor was nearly driven to extinction by DDT, lead poisoning from ingested bullet fragments, and wanton killing. Lead poisoning is currently the primary factor limiting its recovery in Southern California, Arizona and Baja California. Listed as endangered in 1967, condors numbered 55 in the wild and one in captivity in 1968. In 1987, all the wild birds were captured to save the species from extinction. It was reintroduced in 1992 and grew to 270 wild and 167 captive birds in 2015.

CALIFORNIA LEAST TERN (Sternula antillarum browni)

population graph for California least tern, Sternula antillarum browni

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 1,835%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Downlisted: Determination 2006

Recovery plan: 2001

SUMMARY
The California least tern declined dramatically in the late 19th century under intense pressure from the millinery trade. Twentieth-century declines were driven by development, recreational crowding at beaches, and human-induced predator expansion. When listed in 1970, just tern 225 pairs remained. Intensive habitat protection, predator control and recreation management increased the population to 1,200 pairs in 1988 and a high of 7,117 in 2009. The species has since declined to 4,353 pairs in 2013.

Cape Sable seaside sparrow

CAPE SABLE SEASIDE SPARROW (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis)

Cape Sable seaside sparrow
Cape Sable seaside sparrow, Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -52%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1999

Critical habitat: 1977

SUMMARY
The Cape Sable seaside sparrow's habitat has been dramatically degraded by agriculture-driven disruption of natural flooding regimes in the Florida Everglades, where woody and nonnative species are encroaching upon its grasslands habitat. Its population was devastated by a 1935 hurricane, stayed small until 1955, and grew to 6,656 birds in 1981. It was stable through 1992 but crashed to 3,312 in 1993. Since 1998 it has hovered at around 3,000, estimated at about 3,200 birds in 2015.

CARIBBEAN BROWN PELICAN (Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis)

population graph for Caribbean brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 24%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1970

Delisted: Final 2009

Recovery plan: 1986

SUMMARY
The Caribbean brown pelican nests throughout the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It declined due to pesticides, habitat loss, killing, nest-site disturbance, and possibly changes in oceanic food production/availability. Nesting on U.S. islands declined from 475 in 1980 to 201 in 1984, then increased in the 1990s to 590 in 2009, when it was delisted from the Endangered Species Act as a recovered species. The number of nests averaged 350 in the 1980s and 528 in the 2000s.

coastal California gnatcatcher

COASTAL CALIFORNIA GNATCATCHER (Polioptila californica californica)

coastal California gnatcatcher
population graph for coastal California gnatcatcher, Polioptila californica californica

Status since listing: Unknown

Growth since listing: Unknown

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1993

Critical habitat: 2000

SUMMARY
With its population declining, the coastal California gnatcatcher was listed as threatened in 1993 due to habitat loss caused by urban and suburban sprawl and agricultural expansion. It was locally common in the 1940s but very rare by 1961. The only available rangewide U.S. population estimate (thought to be reasonably accurate) stood at 2,562 in 1993. As of 2016, efforts were underway to obtain a second rangewide estimate.

Crested honeycreeper, or ‘ākohekohe

CRESTED HONEYCREEPER, OR 'AKOEKOHE (Palmeria dole)

Crested honeycreeper, or ‘akohekohe
Crested honeycreeper, Palmeria dole, population graph

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: 1.25%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The crested honeycreeper, or ‘ākohekohe, is threatened by avian disease connected to climate change; competition with and predation by nonnative species, and habitat loss and degradation caused by development and feral ungulates. Between 1980 and 2014, the ‘ākohekohe population generally remained stable at around 3,800 birds. A 1999 estimate of 6,745 was likely high due to extrapolation; however, a significant increase in core-range density was observed in that year.

Dusky seaside sparrow

DUSKY SEASIDE SPARROW (Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens)

Dusky seaside sparrow
population graph, dusky seaside sparrow, Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens

Status since listing: Decreased

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1967

Delisted: Final 1990

Recovery plan: 1978

Critical habitat: 1977

SUMMARY
The dusky seaside sparrow was driven extinct by DDT spraying, destruction of its habitat for mosquito control, and conversion of its habitat to cattle pastures and suburban and industrial development. The species was reduced from about 5,000 to 1,500 pairs between 1942 and 1953 by DDT spraying. Habitat destruction reduced it to about 927 pairs in 1968 and 161 in 1970. It was extirpated from the wild by 1980 and extinct altogether by 1987.

Eskimo curlew

ESKIMO CURLEW (Numenius borealis)

Eskimo curlew

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

SUMMARY
The Eskimo curlew faced extensive habitat loss due to agricultural land conversion and fire suppression. Extreme hunting pressure, especially between 1860 and 1890, led to its apparent extinction. Believed to once have numbered more than 1 million birds rangewide, the species was thought to be extinct between 1905 and 1945, but the actual last documented sighting occurred in 1963. Sporadic, disputed sightings continue to occur.

EVERGLADE SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus)

population graph for Everglade snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 75%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1999

Critical habitat: 1977

SUMMARY
The Everglade snail kite is threatened by freshwater marsh destruction, periodic dewatering by water diversions, low population numbers, rangewide drought and hurricanes. The kite was listed in 1967. Based on extrapolation of estimates and growth rates, the species' 1969 population was estimated at 971 birds. It grew to 3,577 in 1999, fell to 662 in 2009, then grew relatively steadily to 1,700 in 2014.

Florida grasshopper sparrow

FLORIDA GRASSHOPPER SPARROW (Ammodramus savannarum floridanus)

Florida grasshopper sparrow
Florida grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum floridanus, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -60%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1986

Recovery plan: 1999

SUMMARY
The Florida grasshopper sparrow declined due to the conversion of 80-85% of its historical grassland habitat to roads, housing developments, farms and livestock pastures. Most remaining grasslands have been degraded by fire suppression. The known population increased from 140 to 340 singing males between 1986, when it was listed as an endangered species, and 2001. It then declined precipitously to 90 in 2001, and 57 in 2015. In 2014 it was predicted to go extinct in 3 to 5 years.

Florida scrub jay

FLORIDA SCRUB JAY (Aphelocoma coerulescens)

Florida scrub jay
Florida scrub jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -49%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1987

Recovery plan: 1999

SUMMARY
The Florida scrub-jay declined due to habitat destruction, degradation and fragmentation by agricultural conversion, development and disruption of natural fire regimes. Fire suppression caused increased shrub/tree encroachment and canopy closure. The bird's population declined from an estimated 27,000 breeding pairs in pre-settlement times to 13,800 by the late 1880s, then to about 6,000 when it was listed as endangered in 1987. It continued to decline to 4,000 in 1993 and 3,000 in 2010.

Golden-cheeked warbler

GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLER (Dendroica chrysoparia)

Golden-cheeked warbler
Golden-cheeked warbler, Dendroica chrysoparia, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 238%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1990

Recovery plan: 1992

SUMMARY
The golden-cheeked warbler declined due to destruction, degradation and fragmentation of mature south Texas woodlands in favor of urban, agricultural and livestock development, as well as because of declining oak populations. Territories on Fort Hood, Camp Bullis and Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge decreased from 3,526 in 1994 to 3,099 in 2000, then increased steadily to 11,920 in 2012; survey effort was a factor, but the bird's actual growth is substantial.

Guam bridled white-eye, or nossa

GUAM BRIDLED WHITE-EYE, OR NOSA (Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatus)

Guam bridled white-eye, or nossa
population graph for Guam bridled white-eye, or nossa, Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatus

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1984

Delisted: Five-year review 2009

Recovery plan: 1990

Critical habitat: 1994

SUMMARY
The Guam bridled white-eye, or nosa, was driven extinct by the brown tree snake, which invaded the island and vastly proliferated, driving all but two of Guam's native birds extinct by preying upon eggs, nestlings and adults. Formerly the most common bird on its island, it was reduced to an estimated 2,220 individuals in 1981 and last seen in 1983. It was listed as endangered in 1984 in the hope that it would be rediscovered, but it hasn't been seen despite subsequent surveys.

Guam broadbill, or chuguangguang

GUAM BROADBILL, OR CHUGUANGGUANG (Myiagra freycineti)

Guam broadbill
Guam broadbill population graph

Recovery plan: 1990

Critical habitat: 1994

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1984

Delisted: Final 2004

SUMMARY
The Guam broadbill, or chuguangguang, was driven extinct by disease, pesticides and predation by invasive species, the most important of which was the ubiquitous brown tree snake. Its range declined from 310 square miles in 1900, to 193 in 1950, and 0.6 in 1983. Its population declined from 460 estimated birds in 1981, to less than 100 in 1983. Only two birds were seen in 1984 and none after. It was listed as endangered in 1984.

Guam kingfisher, or sihek

GUAM KINGFISHER, OR SIHEK (Todiramphus cinnamominus)

Guam kingfisher, or sihek
black-capped vireo, Vireo atricapilla, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1984

Recovery plan: 2008

Critical habitat: 1994

SUMMARY
The Guam kingfisher, or sihek, was extirpated from the wild by the logging and clearing of Guam's native forests and the introduction of invasive ungulates and predatory brown tree snakes which grew to extraordinary densities. In 1981, 502 birds were observed and 3,023 were estimated to exist. By 1985, the year after it was listed as endangered, just 30 birds were detected. It was extirpated by 1988. The captive population increased from 26 birds in 1984, to 155 in 2011.

Guam rail, or ‘ko‘ko

GUAM RAIL, OR 'KO'KO (Rallus owstoni)

Guam rail, or ‘ko‘ko
Guam rail, or ‘ko‘ko population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 650%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1984

Recovery plan: 1990

SUMMARY
The Guam rail, or ‘ko‘ko, is threatened by predation by brown tree snakes, feral cats and other introduced species. The rail declined catastrophically between 1968 and 1983 as brown tree snakes spread across the island. Only 20 wild birds were estimated when the species was listed in 1984. It was extirpated from the wild in 1985. A captive population grew from 21 in 1983 to 170 in 2014, and wild populations created in 1989 and 2010 numbered 150 as of 2014.

Hawaii ‘ākepa, or akakane

HAWAII 'ĀKEPA, OR AKAKANE (Dendroica chrysoparia)

Hawaii ‘akepa, or akakane
Hawaii ‘akepa, or akakane population graph

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: -14%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Hawaii ‘ākepa, or akakane, declined due to the destruction and fragmentation of its forest habitat by logging and livestock grazing, and the spread of invasive, disease-carrying mosquitoes whose elevational range has increased with global warming. The subspecies population was estimated at 13,892 in 1978 and remained roughly stable at this level through 2007. In 2008, the estimate was of 12,000. While one major subpopulation grew during that time, others declined.

Hawaii creeper

HAWAII CREEPER (Oreomystis mana)

Hawaii creeper, Oreomystis mana
Population graph for Hawaii creeper, Oreomystis mana

Status since listing: 12%

Growth since listing: Stable

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1975

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Hawaii creeper declined dramatically due to development; grazing; and invasive predators, plants, competitors and diseases. The movement of avian malaria into higher elevations may be the most significant threat in coming decades. Once an abundant species, it had been reduced to about 12,500 birds by 1980 (shortly after it was listed as endangered in 1975). Since then, the creeper population has remained relatively stable, with 14,000 birds estimated in 2008.

Hawaiian common gallinule, or ‘alae‘ula

HAWAIIAN COMMON GALLINULE, OR 'ALAE'ULA (Gallinula galeata sandvicensis)

Hawaiian common gallinule, or ‘alae‘ula
Hawaiian common gallinule, or ‘alae‘ula population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 2,692%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2011

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian common gallinule declined due to the destruction and degradation of its wetland habitat. Though absolute abundance numbers aren't clear, its population growth rate was sharply positive from 1956 through the mid-1980s, then increased more slowly through 2007. An index of the population increased from 13 in 1967 to 363 in 2007.

Hawaiian coot, or ‘alae ke‘oke‘o

HAWAIIAN COOT, OR 'ALAE KE'OKE'O (Fulica alai)

Hawaiian coot, Fulica alai
Hawaiian coot, Fulica alai, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 748%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2011

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian coot was initially threatened by hunting (in the first half of the 20th century), but it more recently it has been threatened primarily by habitat loss. The rangewide winter coot count increased from 208 birds in 1970 to 1,763 in 2007. Although winter counts fluctuate greatly from year to year, on the whole an upward trend is still detectable.

Hawaiian crow, or ‘alalā

HAWAIIAN CROW, OR 'ALALĀ (Psittirostra psittacea)

Hawaiian crow, or ‘alala
Hawaiian crow, or ‘alala, Psittirostra psittacea, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian crow, or ‘alalā, is the only surviving member of Hawaii's five endemic crow species. It was extirpated from the wild by habitat destruction, predation by introduced predators, disease, and genetic impoverishment. Listed in 1967, it declined from 100 birds in 1968 to 12 in 1992. After a failed augmentation effort, all wild birds were captured in 2003. Captive birds increased from eight to 114 between 1978 and 2016. Reintroductions are planned for September 2016.

Hawaiian duck, or koloa

HAWAIIAN DUCK, OR KOLOA (Anas wyvilliana)

Hawaiian duck, or koloa
Hawaiian duck, or koloa, Anas wyvilliana, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -32%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2011

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian duck, or koloa, has been endangered by hunting, nonnative predators, hybridization with domestic ducks, and habitat loss. Estimates on Kauai since the year before the species' listing in 1967 had declined from 2,942 individuals to 2,000 in 2002. As of 2015, the population was still thought to be around or less than 2,000, although this was not based on new surveys.

Hawaiian goose, or nēnē

HAWAIIAN GOOSE, OR NĒNĒ (Branta sandvicensis)

Hawaiian goose, or nene
Hawaiian goose, or nene, Branta sandvicensis, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 566%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2004

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian goose, or nēnē, is endemic to the Hawaiian islands, where it declined from a historic population estimate of 20,000 birds to just 30 by 1918 due to overhunting, habitat loss and introduced predators. It numbered about 450 in 1972, five years after the species was listed as endangered (in 1967). As of 2015 about 3,000 birds were estimated to exist.

Hawaiian hawk, or 'io

HAWAIIAN HAWK, OR 'IO (Buteo solitarius)

Hawaiian hawk, or 'io
Hawaiian hawk, or 'io, Buteo solitarius, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 54%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Delisted: Proposed 2014

Recovery plan: 1984

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian hawk declined due to logging and conversion of forests to farmlands and livestock pastures. Hunting and invasive predators and disease may have also harmed it. When the species was listed as endangered in 1967, about 100 Hawaiian hawks were thought to remain, though this and 1970s numbers are likely underestimates. In 1985 the estimated population was 1,950 hawks; in 2009 that number was 3,000.

Hawaiian petrel, or 'ua'u

HAWAIIAN PETREL, OR 'UA'U (Pterodroma sandwichensis)

Hawaiian petrel, or 'ua'u
Hawaiian petrel, Pterodroma sandwichensis, population graph

Status since listing: 0%

Growth since listing: Stable

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1983

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian petrel, or 'ua'u, declined due to habitat loss, hunting, predation by invasive species, disease-carried by invasive mosquitoes, disorientation due to light pollution, and collisions with structures. Very rare by 1900, this bird was thought extinct from 1928 to 1948. Since its endangered listing in 1967, its population has grown on protected lands on Maui, Lanai and Kauai. Population estimates were about 4,500 breeding pairs in 1987, 2005 and 2013.

Hawaiian stilt, or ae'o

HAWAIIAN STILT, OR AE'O (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni)

Hawaiian stilt, or ae'o
Hawaiian stilt, or ae'o, Himantopus mexicanus knudseni, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 298%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2011

SUMMARY
The Hawaiian stilt is threatened primarily by habitat loss and predation. It was formerly threatened by hunting. Its population had declined to just 200 birds by 1941, but 529 stilts were counted in 1970, when it was listed, and though its numbers vary widely, overall it had increased by winter 2007, when 2,103 birds were counted.

Inyo California towhee

INYO CALIFORNIA TOWHEE (Pipilo crissalis eremophilus)

Inyo California towhee
Inyo California towhee, Pipilo crissalis eremophilus, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 317%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1987

Delisted: Proposed 2013

Recovery plan: 1998

Critical habitat: 1987

SUMMARY
The Inyo California towhee occurs in a single, arid mountain range in Southern California. Its habitat has been degraded by cattle, feral horses, burros, off-road vehicles, campers and hikers. It was listed as endangered with critical habitat in 1987. In 1987 there were 175 towhees estimated. The species began increasing due to habitat-protection efforts, and in the mid-1990s it reached its 400-bird delisting goal. In 2011, as many as 729 birds existed; in 2013 the species was proposed for delisting.

Ivory-billed woodpecker

IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER (Campephilus principalis)

Ivory-billed woodpecker

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2010

SUMMARY
The ivory-billed woodpecker was driven extinct by logging, and to much lesser extent, turn-of-the-century collection for scientific and other purposes. The U.S. subspecies was last seen in Louisiana in 1944, despite intensive survey efforts that have taken place since. Sightings continue to be reported in both countries, but none have been confirmed.

Kauai ‘ākepa

KAUAI 'AKEPA, OR 'AKEKE'E (Loxops caeruleirostris)

Kauai ‘akepa population graph

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 2010

Recovery plan: 2010

Critical habitat: 2010

SUMMARY
The Kauai ‘ākepa, or ‘akeke‘e, is primarily threatened by introduced mosquito-borne diseases and habitat loss. Predation by rats is also a potential threat. At its endangered listing in 2010, the most recent reliable estimate had been of 3,111 individuals in 2008. In 2007 the estimate stood at 3,536 birds, but by 2012 only 945 remained.

Kauai ‘akialoa

KAUAI 'AKIALOA (Hemignathus procerus)

Kauai ‘akialoa

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Kauai ‘akialoa was not well known, but it presumably faced the same threats as many other Hawaiian forest birds, including mosquito-borne diseases, habitat loss and degradation, and predation by introduced species. It was last seen in 1965, two years before it was listed as an endangered species.

Kauai ‘o‘o

KAUAI 'O'O (Moho braccatus)

Kauai ‘o‘o
Kauai ‘o‘o, Moho braccatus, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Kauai ‘ōʻō declined due to habitat destruction and degradation and likely avian disease. As its range and population withered and lost resiliency, hurricanes may have delivered the final blow. It was listed as endangered in 1967. In 1973, the population estimate stood at 36. The bird was last heard in 1987, and concerted efforts to detect the species thereafter have failed. The species is most likely extinct.

Kirtland's warbler

KIRTLAND'S WARBLER (Dendroica kirtlandii)

Kirtland's warbler
Kirtland's warbler, Dendroica kirtlandii, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 1,077%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Downlisted: Determination 2012

Recovery plan: 1985

SUMMARY
The Kirtland's warbler population declined due to fire suppression, nest parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds, and loss of forest habitat to development and agriculture. It was listed as endangered in 1967, and by 1971 there were only 201 surviving singing males. In response to habitat protection and restoration, as well as cowbird control, the population grew steadily to 2,365 pairs in 2015.

Large Kauai thrush, or kāma‘o

LARGE KAUAI THRUSH, OR KĀMA'O (Myadestes myadestinus)

Large Kauai thrush, or kama‘o
Large Kauai thrush, or kama‘o, Myadestes myadestinus, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The large Kauai thrush, or kāma‘o, was affected by habitat destruction and degradation via development, grazing and introduced species, among other factors. Avian disease seems to have played a particularly large role in the species' decline. In the 1880s it was the most common bird on Kauai. In 1970 it was listed as endangered, and in 1973, only 337 birds were estimated to exist, with the last confirmed sighting in 1987. The species is very likely extinct.

Laysan duck

LAYSAN DUCK (Anas laysanensis)

Laysan duck
Laysan duck population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 20%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2009

SUMMARY
The Laysan duck had disappeared from most of the Hawaiian Islands in the 19th century due to introduced predators, habitat loss and windblown sand. More recently it has been threatened by disease, tsunamis, storms, drought and small population size. The species was listed as endangered in 1967 and, in 1979, the population was estimated to be 489 birds, all on Laysan Island. In 2012, 620 were estimated with 339 on Laysan Island and 281 in a population that had been established on Midway Atoll in 2004.  

Laysan finch

LAYSAN FINCH (Telespiza cantans)

Laysan finch
Laysan finch population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 16%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1984

SUMMARY
The Laysan finch declined precipitously following the introduction of rabbits that denuded Laysan Island of vegetation. The species increased following rabbit removal, but remains threatened by invasive species and sea-level rise. In 1923 as few as 100 of the finches existed. The Laysan island population was estimated at around 7,798 birds in 1967 and 9,077 in 2012. While the population fluctuates widely, overall it was stable near carrying capacity between 1966 and 2012.

LEAST BELL'S VIREO (Vireo bellii pusillus)

Least Bell's vireo
Least Bell's vireo, Vireo bellii pusillus, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 777%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1986

Downlisted: Determination 2006

Recovery plan: 1998

Critical habitat: 1994

SUMMARY
Once one of California's most abundant birds, the least Bell's vireo declined to near-extinction due to habitat loss and brood parasitism by the brown-headed cowbird. Since around the time of its listing and critical habitat designation, there has been an increase in the number of estimated territories, from 291 in 1985 to 2,968 as of 2005.

Least tern, Interior DPS

LEAST TERN, INTERIOR DPS (Sterna antillarum athalassos)

Least tern, Interior DPS
Least tern, Interior DPS, Sterna antillarum athalassos, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 603%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1985

Delisted: Determination 2013

Recovery plan: 1990

SUMMARY
The interior least tern's main threat at the time of its listing was the destruction of habitat due to channel engineering. The species has proven resilient to changes in habitat and has benefited from management. No range-wide threats persist. Since it was listed as endangered in 1985, its population has increased from an estimated 1,970 birds to 13,855 in 2012. Furthermore, the species is now known to inhabit a larger range than originally thought.

Lesser prairie chicken

LESSER PRAIRIE CHICKEN (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus)

Lesser prairie chicken
population graph, Lesser prairie chicken, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 2014

Delisted: Final 2015

SUMMARY
The lesser prairie chicken declined due to habitat destruction, degradation and fragmentation by energy, agriculture and other development. It declined significantly throughout the 1900s. Between 1970 and 2015, the estimated population fell from 300,000 to 29,000. It was listed as an endangered species in 2014.

Light-footed clapper rail, U.S. DPS

LIGHT-FOOTED CLAPPER RAIL, U.S. DPS (Rallus owstoni)

Light-footed clapper rail, U.S. DPS
Light-footed clapper rail, U.S. DPS population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 111%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 1985

SUMMARY
The light-footed clapper rail declined due to loss of salt marshes and wetlands. It remains threatened by predation, small population size, climate change, severe weather events, poor habitat quality and automobile strikes. The U.S population has fluctuated since listing in 1970, but it shows a clearly increasing trend, going from 250 pairs of birds in 1976 to 528 pairs in 2014.

Marbled murrelet, Northwest DPS

MARBLED MURRELET, NORTHWEST DPS (Brachyramphus marmoratus marmoratus)

Marbled murrelet, Northwest DPS
Marbled murrelet, Northwest DPS, Brachyramphus marmoratus marmoratus, population graph

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: -10%

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1992

Recovery plan: 1997

Critical habitat: 1996

SUMMARY
The marbled murrelet population in Washington, Oregon and California declined due to logging of its preferred old-growth forest habitat. It likely declined in the 1990s, but hard data is lacking. The species also declined between 2001 (22,424 birds) and 2010 (17,087); it then increased to 20,290 by 2013. Between 2001 and 2013  the trend was slightly negative but effectively stable overall.

Mariana common moorhen, or pulattat

MARIANA COMMON MOORHEN, OR PULATTAT (Gallinula chloropus guami)

population graph for Mariana common moorhen, or pulattat, Gallinula chloropus guami

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: -18%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1984

Recovery plan: 1991

SUMMARY
The Mariana common moorhen, or pulattat, declined on the four small Mariana islands to which it is endemic due to the draining, filling, degradation and pollution of wetlands, hunting, and predation by invasive species. Some island populations increased and other decreased since it was listed as endangered in 1984, but overall it was stable with the population estimated at 312 in 1984, 350 in 1990, 287 in 2001, and 285 in 2014.

Mariana crow, or aga

MARIANA CROW, OR AGA (Corvus kubaryi)

Mariana crow, or aga
Mariana crow, or aga,Corvus kubaryi, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -93%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1984

Recovery plan: 2005

Critical habitat: 1994

SUMMARY
The Mariana crow, or aga, is endemic to Guam and Rota. Its population has declined due to habitat destruction by agriculture, urban and military development, hunting, and predation by invasive brown tree snakes and feral cats. It was common on Guam through the 1940s, declined substantially by the 1960s, and was extirpated in 2013. On Rota, it declined from 1,491 birds in 1982 to 101 in 2014. Rangewide it declined from 1,666 birds in 1983 to 101 in 2014.

Mariana mallard

MARIANA MALLARD (Anas oustaleti)

Mariana mallard
Mariana mallard, Anas oustaleti, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1977

Delisted: Final 2004

SUMMARY
The Mariana mallard was likely never common due to the limited extent of wetlands on the Mariana Islands. It was driven extinct by the draining and filling of wetlands around WWII. Pollution, hunting, and egg/specimen collection were also factors. The bird was extirpated from Guam (1967) and Tinian (1974) prior to being listed as endangered in 1977. The last three birds were captured in a 1979 emergency rescue. A male was released and never seen again. The others died in captivity in 1981.

Mariana nightingale reed-warbler subspecies, or ga kaliso / gaga karisu

MARIANA NIGHTINGALE REED-WARBLER SUBSPECIES, OR GA KALISO / GAGA KARISU (Acrocephalus luscinia luscinia)

Mariana nightingale reed-warbler subspecies, or ga kaliso / gaga karisu
Mariana nightingale reed-warbler subspecies, or ga kaliso / gaga karisu,Acrocephalus luscinia luscinia, population graph

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -42%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 1998

SUMMARY
The Mariana nightingale reed-warbler subspecies, locally named ga kaliso or gaga karisu, has been threatened mainly due to habitat loss. Causes include fire and wetland conversion. The bird was extirpated on Guam in 1969, the year before it was listed as endangered. Combined numbers from Alamagan and Saipan declined from 8,008 in 1986 to 4,634 in 2009.

Mariana swiftlet, or yayaguak

MARIANA SWIFTLET, OR YAYAGUAK (Aerodramus bartschi)

Mariana swiftlet, or yayaguak
population graph for Mariana swiftlet, or yayaguak, Aerodramus bartschi

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 61%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1984

Recovery plan: 1991

SUMMARY
The Mariana swiftlet, or yayaguak, is not well studied, and the causes of its decline are not well known, but they appear to include nest-site disturbance, habitat loss and brown tree snake predation. While not uniform across the islands inhabited by the subspecies, overall the rangewide population had increased from about 4,180 birds in 1984 to about 6,750 as of 2015.

Masked bobwhite

MASKED BOBWHITE (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi)

Masked bobwhite, Colinus virginianus ridgwayi, population graph

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1995

SUMMARY
The masked bobwhite inhabited the subtropical grasslands of southern Arizona and Sonora, Mexico. Severe overgrazing transformed these landscapes into thornscrub devoid of dense grass, which does not support the bobwhite. Around 1900 it was numerous, but by 1950 it was extirpated from the United States. Repeated introduction effort have failed. A large captive bred population is available to support future reintroduction efforts.

Maui ‘ākepa, or akepeuie

MAUI 'ĀKEPA, OR AKEPEUIE (Loxops coccineus ochraceus)

Maui ‘akepa, or akepeuie
population graph for Maui ‘akepa, Loxops coccineus ochraceus

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Maui ‘ākepa, or akepeuie, declined to possible extinction due to habitat loss and degradation, invasive predators, and the spread of disease. If it still exists, it is likely severely genetically impoverished. After being listed as endangered in 1970, the Maui ‘ākepa was seldom seen. In 1980 its population was estimated to number 230 birds with 8 sightings having occurred that year. The last confirmed detection was in 1988.

Maui nukupu‘u

MAUI NUKUPU'U (Hemignathus lucidus affinis)

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Maui nukupu‘u was driven extinct by habitat destruction, invasive species, and disease. Its last confirmed sighting was in 1901. It was listed as an endangered species in 1970 in the hopes that it would be rediscovered. A handful of unconfirmed sightings have been reported since then, but none confirmed.

Maui parrotbill, or kiwikiu

MAUI PARROTBILL, OR KIWIKIU (Pseudonestor xanthophrys)

Maui parrotbill, or kiwikiu
population graph for Maui parrotbill, or kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys

Status since listing: Stable

Growth since listing: 0%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Maui parrotbill, or kiwikiu, has been threatened, in general, by habitat loss and degradation, predation and invasive diseases. The Maui parrotbill was thought extinct, then was rediscovered in 1950. Between 1980 and 2015, the estimated population went from 502 to 500. The species' total population is thought to have been stable during that time.

Mexican spotted owl

MEXICAN SPOTTED OWL (Strix occidentalis lucida)

Mexican spotted owl
Mexican spotted owl, Strix occidentalis lucida, population graph

Status since listing: Unknown

Growth since listing: Unknown

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 1993

Recovery plan: 2012

Critical habitat: 1995

SUMMARY
The Mexican spotted owl is threatened by habitat loss and degradation by logging, large-scale stand-replacing wildfire and exurban development. It was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1993. The number of known owl territories increased from 758 in 1993 to 1,301 as of 2008, but much or most of that growth was due to increased survey effort. Overall, the trend-since-listing is unknown.

Micronesian megapode

MICRONESIAN MEGAPODE (Megapodius laperouse)

Micronesian megapode
Micronesian megapode, Megapodius laperouse, population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 323%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 1998

SUMMARY
The Micronesian megapode has been threatened by habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation by development and navy training exercises, and by hunting, and the effects of feral, dogs, cats and pigs. While megapode populations are increasing on certain islands, they are stable or decreasing on others. Overall the species increased from 2,587 birds in 1986 to 10,935 in 2010, although some of the growth was due to increased survey effort.

Mississippi sandhill crane

MISSISSIPPI SANDHILL CRANE (Grus canadensis pulla)

Mississippi sandhill crane, Grus canadensis pulla
Mississippi sandhill crane population graph

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 215%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1973

Recovery plan: 1991

Critical habitat: 1975

SUMMARY
The Mississippi sandhill crane is threatened by habitat loss, predation, isolation, harassment, contaminants and hurricanes. Less than 2 percent of the species' wet pine savanna habitat remains. The release of captive-bred cranes began in 1981, and the wild population increased from 40 birds in 1975 to a peak of 135 in 1993. The population declined and remained stable at about 110 birds between 2010 and 2013, then increased to 126 in 2015.

Molokai creeper, or kākāwahie

MOLOKAI CREEPER, OR KĀKĀWAHIE (Paroreomyza flammea)

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Molokai creeper disappeared before it could be studied. Its extinction was likely caused by disease, habitat loss and degradation, and the effects of invasive species. Two to three birds were seen each year in 1961, 1962 and 1963 but, as of 2015, the species had not been sighted since 1963 despite repeated, targeted surveys. It was listed as endangered in 1970, seven years after its last observation.

Molokai thrush, or oloma‘o

MOLOKAI THRUSH, OR OLOMA'O (Myadestes lanaiensis rutha)

Molokai thrush, or oloma‘o, Myadestes lanaiensis rutha
population graph for Molokai thrush, or oloma‘o

Status since listing: Declined

Growth since listing: -100%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Molokai thrush, or oloma‘o, declined to possible extinction due to habitat destruction by agriculture, development, grazing, and likely also mosquito-borne diseases exacerbated by climate change, invasive species and genetic diversity loss. Ubiquitous on Molokai in the early 1900s, the bird was seen only four times since 1963 and three times since being listed as endangered in 1970. No more than three have been seen in any year since 1963. The last confirmed sighting was in 1980.

Mona yellow-shouldered blackbird, or la mariquita de Puerto Rico

MONA YELLOW-SHOULDERED BLACKBIRD, OR LA MARIQUITA DE PUERTO RICO (Agelaius xanthomus monensis)

Mona yellow-shouldered blackbird, or la mariquita de Puerto Rico, Agelaius xanthomus monensis
population graph for Mona yellow-shouldered blackbird, or la mariquita de Puerto Rico

Status since listing: Increased

Growth since listing: 83%

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1976

Recovery plan: 1996

Critical habitat: 1977

SUMMARY
The Mona yellow-shouldered blackbird is threatened by habitat destruction, invasive predators (such as rats), and avian pox. Its isolation on the island of Mona, however, has spared it from more damaging invasives found on the main island of Puerto Rico. It was listed as endangered in 1976, increasing from a 1975 post-breeding roost count of 200 birds to 372 birds in 2010.

 

Extinct or Extirpated Prior to ESA Listing:

 

Bachman’s warbler

BACHMAN'S WARBLER (Vermivora bachmanii)

Bachman’s warbler

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

SUMMARY
Bachman’s warbler was described by James Audubon in 1833. It was driven extinct by intensive logging of its breeding habitat in the United States beginning in the early 1900s. It was considered common until about 1910, when intensive logging began, and it was rare by the 1930s. Its last confirmed sighting was in 1962 in the I'on Swamp. There was an unconfirmed sighting of the bird in its Cuban wintering grounds in 1984.

Eskimo curlew

ESKIMO CURLEW (Numenius borealis)

Eskimo curlew

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

SUMMARY
The Eskimo curlew faced extensive habitat loss due to agricultural land conversion and fire suppression. Extreme hunting pressure, especially between 1860 and 1890, led to its apparent extinction. Believed to once have numbered more than 1 million birds rangewide, the species was thought to be extinct between 1905 and 1945, but the actual last documented sighting occurred in 1963. Sporadic, disputed sightings continue to occur.

Guam bridled white-eye, or nossa

GUAM BRIDLED WHITE-EYE, OR NOSA (Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatus)

Guam bridled white-eye, or nossa
population graph for Guam bridled white-eye, or nossa, Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatus

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1984

Delisted: Five-year review 2009

Recovery plan: 1990

Critical habitat: 1994

SUMMARY
The Guam bridled white-eye, or nosa, was driven extinct by the brown tree snake, which invaded the island and vastly proliferated, driving all but two of Guam's native birds extinct by preying upon eggs, nestlings and adults. Formerly the most common bird on its island, it was reduced to an estimated 2,220 individuals in 1981 and last seen in 1983. It was listed as endangered in 1984 in the hope that it would be rediscovered, but it hasn't been seen despite subsequent surveys.

Guam broadbill, or chuguangguang

GUAM BROADBILL, OR CHUGUANGGUANG (Myiagra freycineti)

Guam broadbill
Guam broadbill population graph

Recovery plan: 1990

Critical habitat: 1994

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1984

Delisted: Final 2004

SUMMARY
The Guam broadbill, or chuguangguang, was driven extinct by disease, pesticides and predation by invasive species, the most important of which was the ubiquitous brown tree snake. Its range declined from 310 square miles in 1900, to 193 in 1950, and 0.6 in 1983. Its population declined from 460 estimated birds in 1981, to less than 100 in 1983. Only two birds were seen in 1984 and none after. It was listed as endangered in 1984.

Ivory-billed woodpecker

IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER (Campephilus principalis)

Ivory-billed woodpecker

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2010

SUMMARY
The ivory-billed woodpecker was driven extinct by logging, and to much lesser extent, turn-of-the-century collection for scientific and other purposes. The U.S. subspecies was last seen in Louisiana in 1944, despite intensive survey efforts that have taken place since. Sightings continue to be reported in both countries, but none have been confirmed.

Kauai ‘akialoa

KAUAI 'AKIALOA (Hemignathus procerus)

Kauai ‘akialoa

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Kauai ‘akialoa was not well known, but it presumably faced the same threats as many other Hawaiian forest birds, including mosquito-borne diseases, habitat loss and degradation, and predation by introduced species. It was last seen in 1965, two years before it was listed as an endangered species.

Kauai nukupu‘u

KAUAI NUKUPU'U (Hemignathus lucidus hanapepe)

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Kauai nukupu‘u rapidly declined rapidly to possible extinction in the nineteenth century due to habitat loss, disease and invasive species. There have been reported sightings in only nine years between 1900 and 2010, and in six years since its Endangered Species Act listing in 1967. Post-1967 reports all reported three or fewer birds in any year. The last confirmed sighting was in 1899.

Masked bobwhite

MASKED BOBWHITE (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi)

Masked bobwhite, Colinus virginianus ridgwayi, population graph

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1967

Recovery plan: 1995

SUMMARY
The masked bobwhite inhabited the subtropical grasslands of southern Arizona and Sonora, Mexico. Severe overgrazing transformed these landscapes into thornscrub devoid of dense grass, which does not support the bobwhite. Around 1900 it was numerous, but by 1950 it was extirpated from the United States. Repeated introduction effort have failed. A large captive bred population is available to support future reintroduction efforts.

Maui nukupu‘u

MAUI NUKUPU'U (Hemignathus lucidus affinis)

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Maui nukupu‘u was driven extinct by habitat destruction, invasive species, and disease. Its last confirmed sighting was in 1901. It was listed as an endangered species in 1970 in the hopes that it would be rediscovered. A handful of unconfirmed sightings have been reported since then, but none confirmed.

Molokai creeper, or kākāwahie

MOLOKAI CREEPER, OR KĀKĀWAHIE (Paroreomyza flammea)

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 1970

Recovery plan: 2006

SUMMARY
The Molokai creeper disappeared before it could be studied. Its extinction was likely caused by disease, habitat loss and degradation, and the effects of invasive species. Two to three birds were seen each year in 1961, 1962 and 1963 but, as of 2015, the species had not been sighted since 1963 despite repeated, targeted surveys. It was listed as endangered in 1970, seven years after its last observation.

 

Listed Under the ESA Less Than 10 Years:

 

Gunnison sage grouse

GUNNISON SAGE GROUSE (Centrocercus minimus)

Gunnison sage grouse population graph

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 2014

Critical habitat: 2014

SUMMARY
The Gunnison sage grouse declined due to habitat degradation and destruction, drought, climate change, disease and small population size. Standardized monitoring of the grouse began in 1996, at which time there were estimated to be 4,038 of the birds. At the time of the species listing as threatened in 2014, 4,705 were estimated.

Kauai ‘ākepa

KAUAI 'AKEPA, OR 'AKEKE'E (Loxops caeruleirostris)

Kauai ‘akepa population graph

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 2010

Recovery plan: 2010

Critical habitat: 2010

SUMMARY
The Kauai ‘ākepa, or ‘akeke‘e, is primarily threatened by introduced mosquito-borne diseases and habitat loss. Predation by rats is also a potential threat. At its endangered listing in 2010, the most recent reliable estimate had been of 3,111 individuals in 2008. In 2007 the estimate stood at 3,536 birds, but by 2012 only 945 remained.

Kauai creeper, or ‘akikiki

KAIAUI CREEPER, OR 'AKIKIKI (Oreomystis bairdi)

Kauai creeper population graph

ESA status: Endangered

List year: 2010

Recovery plan: 2010

Critical habitat: 2010

SUMMARY
The Kauai creeper, or ‘akikiki, is primarily threatened by introduced mosquito-borne diseases, habitat loss and degradation, and, potentially, predation by introduced species. The ‘akikiki is estimated to have declined from 1,312 individuals in 2007 to 468 in 2012. It was listed as endangered in 2010.

Lesser prairie chicken

LESSER PRAIRIE CHICKEN (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus)

Lesser prairie chicken
population graph, Lesser prairie chicken, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus

ESA status: Threatened

List year: 2014

Delisted: Final 2015

SUMMARY
The lesser prairie chicken declined due to habitat destruction, degradation and fragmentation by energy, agriculture and other development. It declined significantly throughout the 1900s. Between 1970 and 2015, the estimated population fell from 300,000 to 29,000. It was listed as an endangered species in 2014.

 

Delisted Due to Taxonomic Change:

 

CACTUS FERRUGINOUS PYGMY OWL, ARIZONA DPS (Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum)

cactus ferruginous pygmy owl

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1967

Delisted: Final 1978


SUMMARY
The Arizona distinct population segment of the cactus ferruginous pygmy owl is threatened by the loss of much of its preferred riparian breeding habitat in the southern part of the state to urban and agricultural development, and water pumping. Long-term population data are lacking, but it is clear that this once-common species declined dramatically in the 20th century.

Mexican duck

MEXICAN DUCK, U.S. DPS (Anas diazi)

Mexican duck

ESA status: Delisted

List year: 1967

Delisted: Final 1978

SUMMARY
The U.S. population of the Mexican duck was thought to be at risk due to the drainage of its marsh habitat and hybridization with mallards. The bird was delisted after it became clear that genetically pure Mexican ducks are very unlikely to occur in the United States. Crosses between Mexican ducks and mallards in the United States essentially constitute an unlistable phenotype of the mallard.